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The complete guide to customer journey management.

14 min read Effective customer journey management requires a keen understanding of how your customers move from touchpoint to touchpoint. Here’s how to understand and optimize every customer’s journey – and how to make proactive changes that boost the entire customer experience.

The interactions your customers have with you are never one-off moments, and they don’t happen in a vacuum. Instead, they form part of an overarching customer journey, which incorporates every single stage of each customer’s road to purchase – and beyond.

Understanding those customer journeys, and building experiences with every step in mind, is how you’ll create interactions that people love, remember, and recommend.

Delivering on those next-level customer journeys requires a deep understanding of how people discover your brand and buy your products, and that means working on a few core practices:

Customer journey mapping

Customer journey orchestration, customer journey optimization, customer journey analytics.

In this article, we’ll be going through the what, why, and how of customer journey management – as well as what mastering it will mean for your customers.

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What is customer journey management?

Customer journey management is the art of being able to understand, map, design, and improve the interactions and processes that make up the entire customer experience.

It’s a discipline stemming from the idea that no matter how a customer interacts with your brand, that interaction is one part of a larger journey and not just an individual event.

It doesn’t matter if a customer is actively researching your products, passively encountering a social media post, browsing in a physical store, or contacting customer support – whatever the interaction, it’s happening as part of an overall journey.

Managing that journey really just means making those isolated moments better, but also ensuring that they’re interconnected and aligned.

When exploring and visualizing customer journey data, we are assessing:

  • Customer behavior What is your customer trying to do?
  • Customer attitudes What is your customer feeling/saying?
  • The on-stage experience Who/what is your customer directly interacting with? (This includes various channels, such as TV ads or social media)
  • The off-stage experience Who/what needs to be in place but which your customer is NOT directly aware of?

The purpose of customer journey management is ultimately to finetune the customer experience until it’s as seamless as possible, that the path towards purchase is frictionless, and that each touchpoint works as part of a broader CX strategy.

Successfully managing customer journeys, then, requires that you can master a mixture of customer data, behavioral science, customer feedback, industry insight, and a dash of business instinct.

Customer journey management: A mindset shift

Building customer journey management processes into your business requires a mindset shift. It’s not something that you can do once and forget about, and nor is it something that’s a quick change. That’s because customer journey management is a multi-faceted task that asks a little bit of every department.

Customer journey flow chart for management

Instead of siloed teams looking after their individual touchpoints or KPIs, true customer journey management needs to have an omnichannel focus. You’ll need to work across departments to deliver more a seamless customer experience no matter how your customers choose to interact with you.

Customer journey management is about pooling your resources to answer the following questions:

  • What journeys are your different customer segments taking?
  • Are customers able to get the answers and solutions they need?
  • Can you track and pinpoint where experience gaps lie?
  • How can you work to proactively fix those pain points?
  • Are you able to monitor the results of those changes?

Customer expectations are higher than ever, and people are much more careful with where they spend their hard-earned money. So it’s vital to be able to offer them journeys that offer zero resistance.

In that sense, customer journey management needs full company buy-in. It’s top-down, as well as bottom-up – where customer journey data informs both individual channels as well as your overarching business strategy.

The benefits of customer journey management

There are two core benefits to customer journey management: stronger business outcomes, and a better customer experience. But you needn’t just take our word for it; there’s strong evidence for both.

PwC , for example, cites that 65% of consumers are likely to become long-term customers if the entire customer journey offers a positive experience, while some 86% will leave a brand after two poor interactions, according to Emplifi. In fact, that same research says that 49% of consumers have done just that, with poor customer experience being the key driver of churn.

From a business outcomes perspective, there are plenty of reasons to ensure that your customer journeys are as polished as possible. Customer journey management means being able to offer customers a more personalized experience, for example, which is a great way to grow an audience of loyal customers.

Some 60% of consumers will become repeat buyers if the experience on offer is a personalized one, and 66% are willing to share personal data if it helps them get that. That shows an appetite for journeys that work better on an individual level. In our own 2022 research , we found that:

  • 63% of consumers said companies need to get better at listening to their feedback
  • 62% of consumers said that businesses need to care more about them
  • 60% of consumers would buy more if businesses treated them better

And then there’s the fact that orchestrating and fine-tuning the customer journey will result in a stronger omnichannel experience – which also boosts sales. Omnisend research found that omnichannel campaigns and experiences can drive as much as 494% more orders than single-channel ones.

journey quality definition

If you remember nothing else, remember this: customer journey management is an incredibly worthwhile practice to build into your business for three main reasons:

1. You become more customer-focused Customer journey management is about putting your customers at the forefront of your business practices and processes. 2. You can offer more personalized experiences You’ll know more about what makes your customers tick, which will let you tailor your offering to them in a more bespoke way. 3. You’ll break down siloes Customer journey management requires total transparency and teams that talk regularly to one another.

The building blocks of customer journey management

Customer journey management venn diagram

Let’s take a look at each part of the customer journey management framework:

A customer journey map is a theoretical version of the steps a customer persona or segment will take to achieve what they’re trying to do. That might be making their first purchase, making a repeat purchase, or seeking customer support.

The idea, then, is to create multiple customer journey maps for all of these different experiences and list out the steps and touchpoints along the way. This’ll give you an idea of the various processes that take place in any given journey.

You’ll normally create these maps as a team, as part of a journey mapping workshop. There are two stages here: defining your audience personas and outlining their various journeys.

Fo audience personas, you’re really asking who your customers are. What’s their age and location? What do they do for a living? What’s their family status? And what are their goals in relation to your product?

Their journeys can be understood by answering a series of behavioral questions. Who’s involved in the journey? What are the processes and stages? What does the customer think during these stages? What’s the greatest moment of emotional load? What are your customer needs at this moment? How do their needs change if this experience goes badly?

For the most part, this is an experience-driven process, rather than a data-driven one – in that your team should be able to create a customer journey map for a range of customer journeys based on instinct and understanding. These assumptions can then be tested by asking customers as part of your workshopping process.

Need more info? We’ve got a full guide to customer journey mapping here.

Customer journey orchestration and optimization

Once you know what your customer journeys look like, you can think about how to design ones that work best. If your customer journey mapping is a top-level exercise, then customer journey orchestration and optimization are more practical. These use customer data and a cross-team approach to ensure that customers can move from touchpoint to touchpoint smoothly.

Customer journey orchestration often relies on a dedicated team made up of marketing, product, and service personnel, who can work together to create more compelling journeys.

Imagine, for example, that you a customer has recently installed your SaaS tool, but now they’re experiencing an issue. Your customer service team will naturally spring into action here, but great customer journey orchestration would also mean that other teams know what’s happening.

journey quality definition

Your marketing team, for instance, would know not to bombard that customer with collateral about how great the product is until their issue has been fixed. The product team, meanwhile, would know about the issue the customer is facing and would be proactively working to ensure that the issue doesn’t arise for anyone else.

In other words, orchestration is about designing processes that can be standardized as a ‘best practice’ framework for each and every customer journey.

If orchestration is about designing flows that offer the best possible experience, then optimization is about looking at the ones currently in place, identifying pain points, and working to fix them.

Optimizing customer journeys is a cyclical process, rather than a ‘one and done’ job. Here, you’ll use customer data points, insight from analytics, social listening tools, regular customer feedback, and survey responses to build a picture of both customer behavior and high-priority pain points.

Armed with all that knowledge, you’ll be able to take active steps to improve the customer experience wherever you can.

Imagine, for example, that you know that a lot of your target audience arrives on your website via Instagram ads, but that a high percentage of them bounce without making a purchase. One way to optimize that journey could be to build a series of landing pages that are unique to each segment – with each targeted social ad sending people to a more personalized product offering.

Whatever the case, it’s essential to monitor the success of these initiatives and learn if they’ve worked, or if things still need changing. Optimization is about being holistic and agile, and not ignoring the data and insight available to you.

This brings us to the last part of the journey management process…

While instinct and some level of customer insight will help you map out a range of customer journeys, the ability to orchestrate and optimize things relies on access to customer data.

Customer experience management software is the answer here. The right customer journey management tools can provide masses of insight into the customer experience, help you track KPIs, and offer areas for improvement.

journey quality definition

This information can come from a variety of sources. Customer behavior tracking can be baked right into digital products and work across platforms to help you better understand their journeys, while AI and natural language processing can listen to and understand customer effort, intent, and sentiment.

When it comes to customer journey management, software like this can help you:

  • Audit journeys you think are happening
  • Find ones you didn’t realize were happening
  • Hear customer feedback from every touchpoint
  • Understand where things need to change
  • Measure the success of those change tactics

Information like this, both real-time and historical, can not only help you monitor the success of your customer journey management efforts but also provide a list of next steps to try, in order to attain better business outcomes.

Because of that, you can think of journey analytics as the engine behind an effective customer journey management approach.

Customer behavior: Bringing it all together

The three-part customer journey management framework is really a series of overlapping processes. Mapping informs orchestration and orchestration informs optimization, but the right analytics and data can inform all three.

So, in order to drive your desired business outcomes, you need to adopt the right tools. Customer experience management platforms, like the one offered by Qualtrics, can help you figure out what your customers are doing, saying, and thinking – and why.

journey quality definition

That information, alongside a much deeper understanding of who your customers actually are, can help you build personalized customer experiences that allow people to effortlessly float from touchpoint to touchpoint in a way that feels tailored to them.

The Qualtrics CustomerXM™ Platform has been designed to turn customers into fans. It allows you to hear every customer’s voice, fix every broken experience, and increase customer loyalty and spend. Click here to learn more.

Related resources

Customer Journey

Customer Journey Stages 12 min read

Buyer's journey 16 min read, customer journey analytics 13 min read, how to create a customer journey map 22 min read, b2b customer journey 13 min read, customer interactions 11 min read, consumer decision journey 14 min read, request demo.

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  • Quality – A Journey, Not a Destination

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journey quality definition

Quality management is often mistakenly viewed as a final outcome or a fixed state that organizations achieve after implementing certain practices or systems. However, it is essential to understand that quality is not a one-time accomplishment but an ongoing journey that requires continuous improvement, adaptation, and innovation. This article explores the concept of quality as a journey and discusses the mindset and practices that help organizations continually improve and excel.

The Continuous Improvement Mindset:

To view quality as a journey, organizations must adopt a continuous improvement mindset. This means recognizing that there is always room for improvement and embracing change. The Deming Cycle, also known as the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle, is a widely used framework that helps organizations implement this mindset. By repeatedly applying the PDCA cycle, organizations can identify gaps, implement improvements, measure results, and refine their processes to achieve better outcomes.

Learning from Mistakes and Failures:

Another crucial aspect of the quality journey is learning from mistakes and failures. Instead of viewing them as setbacks, organizations should treat them as opportunities for growth and improvement. Analyzing root causes , understanding the contributing factors, and implementing corrective and preventive actions will help organizations avoid repeating the same mistakes and drive continuous improvement.

Embracing Innovation and Adaptation:

Organizations must be agile and adaptive to maintain their competitive edge in today's rapidly changing business landscape. Embracing innovation and adapting to new technologies, market trends, and customer needs is integral to the quality journey. Fostering a culture of innovation encourages employees to come up with new ideas and solutions, contributing to the ongoing improvement and growth of the organization.

Employee Engagement and Empowerment:

Quality improvement is not the sole responsibility of a specific department or team; it should be the collective effort of the entire organization. Engaging and empowering employees to take ownership of quality, participate in improvement initiatives, and provide feedback is crucial in the journey toward excellence. Organizations that involve employees in decision-making and provide the necessary tools and resources to drive improvement are more likely to succeed in their quality journey.

Benchmarking and Learning from Others:

Organizations should not hesitate to learn from others in their pursuit of quality excellence. Learning from others' successes and failures accelerates the organization's quality journey and helps them stay ahead of the competition. Benchmarking against industry leaders and best practices provides valuable insights into areas for improvement and potential strategies to adopt.


In conclusion, viewing quality as a journey rather than a destination encourages organizations to embrace continuous improvement, learn from mistakes, and foster a culture of innovation and employee engagement. By adopting this mindset and integrating these practices into their daily operations, organizations can achieve sustainable growth and consistently deliver high-quality products and services to their customers.

The pursuit of quality is an ongoing journey, and the road to excellence is paved with continuous improvement.

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  • Quality management systems: An introduction

How do successful businesses thrive in our ever-more competitive world? Some are driven by a charismatic leader; others rely on the power of the collective. But there is one ingredient which, from corner store to corporate powerhouse, is essential for healthy long-term success. Quality.  

That is why effective quality management is an imperative for any successful business today. In our age of innovation and rapidly shifting expectations, keeping pace with the times means committing to a journey of continuous improvement. And achieving this goal requires a foundation of sound quality management systems .  

An effective quality management system (QMS) provides the means to consistently meet consumer expectations and deliver products and services with minimal waste. In today’s highly competitive global economy, having a QMS in place is the prerequisite for sustainable success. 

Table of contents

What is a quality management system .

In the most simple terms, a quality management system is a clearly defined set of processes and responsibilities that makes your business run how it’s supposed to. Each organization tailors its own QMS, comprising a formal set of policies, processes and procedures established to elevate consumer satisfaction. A QMS guides organizations as they standardize and enhance quality controls across manufacturing, service delivery and other key business processes. 

The core benefits of a QMS include: 

  • Elevated consistency and standardization of processes and outputs 
  • Reduced errors and increased operational efficiency 
  • Improved customer satisfaction through the delivery of quality products and services 
  • Continuous evaluation and improvement of organizational operations 

What is a digital QMS? 

A QMS can be delivered digitally rather than using paper checklists and forms. This saves organizations time, mitigates risk and minimizes the chance of human error. Implementing a digital QMS requires meticulous planning and execution, and needs to be designed to comply with relevant regulations and industry standards, incorporating robust digital security measures to protect data. 

All of these approaches call for expert guidance. 

Types of quality management systems 

A QMS may be based on either domestic or international standards. Different QMSs respond to different needs and scenarios, and organizations can choose to implement just one, or integrate a blend of different approaches. Among the most common are: 

  • Standardized systems : These set the bar for established standards and agreed-upon codes and practices, such as certifications against ISO standards. ISO 9001 outlines requirements for a comprehensive QMS and provides guidance for organizations looking to implement or improve their quality management strategy. 
  • Total quality management (TQM) : TQM is a management philosophy centred on customer satisfaction through the active participation of every employee. Its goal is to support the continuous improvement of quality across all levels and business functions. 
  • Lean management : Inefficiencies can result in unnecessary waste. Lean management strives to maximize customer value while minimizing waste using tools like value stream mapping, which helps fine-tune an organization’s processes for optimum efficiency. 
  • Six Sigma : Although perfection is almost impossible to reach, the pursuit of it is still worthwhile. Six Sigma uses data-driven techniques in the pursuit of producing near-perfect products and services, with a defect rate of 3.4 per one million opportunities. While that’s not perfect, it is pretty close. 

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Benefits of using a quality management system 

There are numerous reasons to establish a QMS. Standardized processes improve efficiency and enhance productivity through the reduction, or even elimination, of redundancies and waste. Defect prevention reduces costs associated with reworking or scrapping. 

QMS audits excel at recognizing potential problems before they occur, thereby significantly reducing risk. What’s more, a QMS streamlines the record-keeping process, with improved documentation facilitating traceability and accountability  – and aiding in regulatory compliance . A QMS also functions as a troubleshooting process, providing performance metrics and built-in audits to uncover weaknesses, establishing a solid foundation for improvement.  

Consistent quality leads to happy, satisfied customers who become informal brand ambassadors within their communities. So they create further business opportunities and the potential for increased market share. Any real-world example of a QMS will aptly demonstrate this: Companies who have built a successful quality system are more likely to achieve their business goals, driving higher-loyalty, frictionless customer journeys. 

Why is a quality management system important? 

Every organization wants to strive for excellence. Because, ultimately, the quality of a product or service is what the customer gets out of it and is willing to pay for. Quality management plays a crucial role in delivering a superior experience, which in turn influences a company’s growth and performance.  

Here are six good reasons to consider investing in a quality management system: 

  • Brand reputation : This is priceless, of course. A brand is more likely to gain international recognition when an organization surpasses established quality benchmarks. 
  • Customer retention : Consistently meeting, or exceeding, customer needs and expectations fosters loyalty. When high standards are met or surpassed, why would customers go anywhere else? 
  • Business sustainability : Consistently delivering excellence ensures and maintains a steady supply of customers. Doing business sustainably, and producing minimal waste, is the best way to grow and future-proof an organization. 
  • Compliance : Meeting regulatory, safety and quality standards is a must and a QMS seamlessly facilitates this process. 
  • Competitive edge : Higher-quality products and services give businesses a competitive advantage in complex times. 
  • Staff engagement : Employees who feel they are involved in quality improvements tend to experience higher engagement and productivity. 

Journey to excellence 

Developing an effective quality management system doesn’t happen overnight, but requires careful planning and execution. So, what are some of the key steps to success for an organization starting out on its QMS journey? 

  • Secure leadership commitment : Building a QMS requires alignment at the executive level. 
  • Document processes : Identify and thoroughly document procedures associated with existing quality processes. 
  • Define metrics : Performance-tracking metrics should be determined to ensure they meet QMS requirements. 
  • Training : All employees will need initial and ongoing training in order to build understanding and engagement with the QMS. 
  • Audits : Regular self-audits on processes and procedures will ensure compliance and effective implementation. 
  • Review system performance : Regularly assess system performance in order to make improvements as needed. 

It’s important to note that while the steps outlined above provide a high-level overview, building and sustaining an impactful QMS takes considerable effort and commitment across multiple areas of an organization.

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The bottom line 

In today’s competitive marketplace, maintaining high-quality standards is more crucial than ever. As a business owner, you’re aware that customers will continue coming if they know that you will deliver them the product or service they need. This calls for company processes that are reliable, effective, trustworthy and streamlined – aligning business objectives and bottom lines with consistency and excellence. While this may sound like a no-brainer, how do you ensure a formalized process that documents each step, the desired outcomes, ways to improve, and the end results? 

A quality management system may be just the solution you’re looking for. 

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Juran’s steps for Quality Improvement

Juran, like Deming, was invited to Japan in 1954 by the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE). His work pioneered the management dimensions of planning, organizing, and controlling and focussed on the responsibility of management to achieve quality and the need for setting goals.

Juran defines quality as fitness for use in terms of design, conformance, availability, safety, and field use. His approach is based customer, top-down management and technical methods.

The Juran Trilogy is an improvement cycle that is meant to reduce the cost of poor quality by planning quality into the product / process.

  • Quality Planning : In the planning stage, it is critical to define who the customers are and to define their needs (voice of the customer). Once the customer needs are identified, define the requirements for the product / process / service / system, etc., and develop them for operations along with the respective stakeholder expectations. Planning activities are done through a multidisciplinary team, with the involvement of key stakeholders.
  • Quality Control : During the control phase, determine what needs to be measured (what forms of data and from which processes?), and set a goal for performance. Obtain feedback by measuring actual performance, and act on the gap between performance and the goal. In Statistical Process Control (SPC), there are several tools that could be used in the control phase of the Juran Trilogy: such as the 7 QC tools and other statistical process control methods.
  • Quality Improvement : There are four different strategies to improvement that could be applied for improvements:
  • Repair: reactive approach - fix what is broken
  • Refinement: proactive approach - continually improve a process that isn’t broken
  • Renovation: improvement through innovation or technological advancement
  • Reinvention: most demanding approach – abandon the current practices and start over with a clean slate.

Quality improvement can be an arduous journey for organizations, as they are up against various constraints that include customer / stakeholder expectations and interests, some of which could be inherently conflicting.

Juran advocated a ten-step process for quality improvement programmes.

  • Build awareness of need and opportunity for improvement
  • Survey the employees / personnel, find why errors / mistakes / deviations are made
  • After a week, select the top ten reasons
  • Decide how to make sure those mistake-causing steps aren't repeated
  • Keep track of the number of mistakes being made, make sure they are decreasing
  • Set goals for improvement
  • Establish specific goals to be reached
  • Establish plans for reaching the goals
  • Assign clear responsibility for meeting the goals
  • Base the rewards on results achieved
  • Organize to reach the goals
  • Establish quality councils
  • Identify problems
  • Select projects
  • Appoint teams
  • Designate facilitators
  • Provide training
  • Investment in education and training will fetch rewards
  • Carry out projects to solve problems
  • Large, break-through improvements through interdepartmental or even cross-functional teams
  • Tackle the chronic problems for break-through improvements
  • Vital few problems create the breakthroughs
  • Report progress
  • Progress expected and the actual progress achieved
  • Act to improve the operational status to reduce variance
  • Information on progress provides confidence on quality improvement projects
  • Give recognition
  • Morale booster
  • Communicate results
  • Lesson learnt
  • Awareness of the approach taken, possibility to learn and improve further
  • Improvement outlook for people in other areas, to emulate success
  • Track progress
  • Report achievements, short-falls
  • Maintain momentum by making annual improvement part of the regular processes
  • People oriented

Juran’s steps for improvements in quality have been widely accepted, practiced and evolved over time to suit different organizations and segments.

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Customer Journey

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  • Posted by by Nedim Mehic
  • February 27, 2024

What is the Customer Journey?

The Customer Journey refers to the complete experience a customer has with a brand or company across multiple touchpoints and stages, from initial awareness through to post-purchase interactions and beyond. It encompasses every interaction, whether direct or indirect, that contributes to the customer’s perception and relationship with the brand. Understanding the customer journey is crucial for businesses aiming to optimize customer experiences, enhance satisfaction, and ultimately drive loyalty and advocacy.

Stages of the Customer Journey

The customer journey can be divided into several key stages, each representing a different part of the experience:

  • Awareness: The potential customer becomes aware of a problem or need and discovers the brand as a possible solution.
  • Consideration: The customer evaluates the brand’s offerings, comparing them with competitors, to determine if it meets their needs.
  • Decision: The customer decides to purchase a product or service from the brand.
  • Retention: Post-purchase, the brand seeks to engage the customer further, encouraging repeat purchases and loyalty.
  • Advocacy: Satisfied customers become brand advocates, recommending the brand to others.

Importance of Understanding the Customer Journey

  • Personalized Marketing: Tailoring marketing strategies to meet customers at each stage of their journey with relevant messaging and offers.
  • Improved Customer Experience: Identifying and addressing pain points or gaps in the journey to enhance overall satisfaction.
  • Increased Customer Retention: Fostering positive post-purchase experiences that lead to repeat business and loyalty.
  • Data-Driven Insights: Collecting and analyzing data from various touchpoints to better understand customer behavior and preferences.

Mapping the Customer Journey

Customer Journey Mapping is the process of creating a visual representation of the customer journey. This map outlines all the touchpoints where customers interact with the brand, highlighting opportunities for improvement and innovation. Effective maps are created from the customer’s perspective and include qualitative and quantitative data to provide a comprehensive overview of the customer experience.

Examples of Touchpoints in the Customer Journey

  • Website Visits: The customer’s interactions with the brand’s website, including information search and navigation ease.
  • Social Media: Engagement with the brand through social media platforms, including ads, posts, and customer service inquiries.
  • In-store Experiences: For brick-and-mortar retailers, the in-store experience, including staff interactions, ambiance, and product availability.
  • Customer Support: The quality and effectiveness of customer service interactions, including response time and issue resolution.

Strategies for Enhancing the Customer Journey

  • Customer Feedback: Regularly collect and analyze customer feedback to identify areas for improvement.
  • Personalization: Use customer data to personalize interactions and communications, making each touchpoint more relevant and engaging.
  • Cross-Channel Consistency: Ensure a consistent brand experience across all channels, from digital to physical.
  • Continuous Improvement: Treat the customer journey as an evolving process, continually seeking ways to refine and enhance the experience.

The Customer Journey is a comprehensive concept that requires ongoing attention and adaptation by businesses to meet changing customer needs and expectations. By understanding and optimizing each stage of the journey, companies can create more meaningful interactions, build stronger relationships, and drive sustainable growth through enhanced customer loyalty and advocacy.

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The --quality or --q parameter changes how much time is spent generating an image. Higher-quality settings take longer to process and produce more details. Higher values also mean more GPU minutes are used per job. The quality setting does not impact resolution.

The default --quality value is 1. --quality only accepts the values: .25, .5, and 1 for the current model. Larger values are rounded down to 1. --quality only influences the initial image generation.

The Influence of Quality on Jobs

Higher --quality settings aren't always better. Sometimes a lower --quality settings can produce better results—depending on the image you're trying to create. Lower --quality settings might be best for a gestural abstract look. Higher --quality values may improve the look of architectural images that benefit from many details. Choose the setting that best matches the image you're hoping to create.

Version Quality Compatibility

Quality comparison.

Prompt example: /imagine prompt intricate woodcut of a peony --q .25

--quality .25

quickest results, least detailed results

--quality .5

less detailed results

--quality 1

the default setting

How to Use the Quality Parameter

Use the --quality or --q parameter.

Add --quality <value> or --q <value> to the end of your prompt.

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Online Trade Magazine - Industry 4.0 Advanced Manufacturing and Factory Automation

Quality 4.0 blends technology with traditional methods of quality, in order to help manufacturers achieve operational excellence. It leverages technology to collect data enterprise-wide to provide visibility into the complete product lifecycle and manage workflows.

The Real World Quality Journey

Q&A with David Isaacson, Senior Director, Product Marketing | ETQ

Tell us about yourself and your role with ETQ.

As a senior marketing leader, I focus on developing market strategies and product positioning for ETQ’s cloud-based solutions. I’ve been involved with delivering SaaS solutions to a variety of industries, always with an emphasis of providing value to customers to help them with accomplish their goals. Analytics has also played a key role, and our customers are able to adopt a data-driven approach to making quality decisions. 

What are you seeing driving a greater emphasis on quality among manufacturing firms?

To understand the role quality can play on company success, you really don’t have to look any further than the impact rising product defects and recalls have on manufacturers in terms of financial loss, weakened brand image and reputation, and the time and resources required to fix them. In fact, according to a recent study we commissioned on The State of Quality Management, 96% of manufacturers polled said they experienced a product recall in the last three-to-five years. Yet, out of the manufacturers that had a recall, the majority of those that had a Quality Management System (QMS) in place were able to quickly rebound from it. However, it’s not only defects and recalls that are driving the emphasis on quality. Growing regulatory compliance mandates, from the likes of the FDA, OSHA and other bodies, are better managed and traceable when a sound quality program is in place.  

Tell us about Quality 4.0 and how is it related to Industry 4.0? 

Quality 4.0 is a natural extension of Industry 4.0, which signaled a major shift in the role of automation, integration and the digitization of manufacturing. Quality 4.0 blends technology with traditional methods of quality, in order to help manufacturers achieve operational excellence.  It leverages technology to collect data enterprise-wide, from various sources to provide visibility into the complete product lifecycle and manage workflows, processes and protocols. It also leverages analytics to find meaning behind the data and use it to anticipate or solve business challenges.  

What are the key elements to Quality 4.0 and what steps should companies take to implement them?

Quality 4.0 embraces people, processes and technology. The first step on any quality journey is a cultural one. It requires viewing quality as a strategic business initiative, instead of an operational function. To do this, manufacturers must understand why quality matters. They need to uncover their pain points and weaknesses, get all stakeholders on board and set measurable outcomes. Subsequent phases are all about integration and optimization of processes to enable seamless process flows across different functions and systems. It requires building out the tech stack, as well as the quality team to enable these processes.  

After establishing the foundation for a successful quality program, companies can leverage it across the full product lifecycle and supply chain ecosystem to consistently uphold and exceed quality standards. 

What are the barriers to effective quality management?

A major challenge is that there is a shortage of IT talent to support effective quality programs and related new technologies. In addition, quality requires a major shift in mind-set, so change management is a prerequisite to its success. Reinforcing the quality mind-set from the top down can be difficult. Business leaders must work alongside quality managers and IT to support the initiative enterprise-wide. In addition, supply chains are becoming more complex and it’s becoming increasingly difficult to maintain quality standards across the full pipeline.

What should manufacturers look for in an effective quality management solution?

It’s key that the QMS you use is scalable to meet changing needs. It should allow you to manage the creation, distribution and archiving of all critical documents in a centralized and controlled framework. And, it should be flexible enough so you can leverage best practices, make them your own and quickly adapt to internal and external business challenges. In addition, new systems now offer advanced analytics and AI, which help you make data-driven decisions by collecting and analyzing key quality metrics such as manufacturing efficiency, customer satisfaction or supplier performance. The data collected, however, must be easily analyzed and actionable if it is to be used to improve future outcomes.

Can you provide an example of how a manufacturer implemented a successful quality program? 

A good example of the power of a QMS approach is with Herman Miller, an international office furniture manufacturer. The company is comprised of several business units and subsidiaries, which are geographically dispersed, and customers were not receiving a consistent level of quality and service across the company’s entire footprint. The company implemented a quality program and used our cloud-based QMS solution to automate its manual document control workflow, including its supply chain processes. The automated QMS system enabled them to discern, define and document best practices enterprise wide. As a result the company is able to consistently provide customers with continuously improving products and related services. The time it takes for a supplier to process a corrective action has been dramatically reduced from 30 days to 14 days and this means fewer mistakes, as well as fewer repairs and reshipments, leading to happier customers. 

journey quality definition

David Isaacson, Senior Director of Product Marketing at ETQ, has over 25 years experience in software product marketing and product management. He has successfully brought SaaS products to market for a variety of industries and high-growth companies. David has worked for software companies such as Anaqua, VFA/Accruent, and Oracle, where he led the product management team responsible for integrating analytics into the Oracle database.

The content & opinions in this article are the author’s and do not necessarily represent the views of ManufacturingTomorrow

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Tuesday, February 14, 2012

  • How Do You Define Quality?

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Quality, as defined in ISO 9001 norm, is what an organisation defines internally to satisfy its customers needs. It talks about customer but it talks very little about the situation on the market, about organizations competitors. That is probably the reason why so many organizations that are ISO certified in the end fail, because they are living in a crystal ball and know very little about their competitors and what they are doing to win on respective markets. I think that the manufacturing definition of the quality is sufficient internally, but you must have a wider, external look at it, and on the general conditions of the products/services you're offering if you think that quality could give you some competitive advantage. Think for example of RIM and blackberry, they have internally perfect products, awesome quality, that never break. And they are easily certified for producing them. But the conditions on the outside have changed from the moment some other products have disrupted their market and they are now near to bankruptcy. If you close yourself and look only on the inside, which is one of the main prescriptions of ISO, you risk circumstances like this to ruin you forever...

Dragan, I see your point. I am not sure any single benchmark is more important than customer satisfaction. That is why I say quality is about understand your customers needs and meeting those. The company who does that the best gets the majority share of the market.

Interesting post. I agree with Tim, I think if you want to achieve "quality", you have to focus on your customers needs. If you know how to read your customers needs, you are understanding what is happening in the market/competitors. I think the best quality definitions are: "Quality is: 1. A characteristic of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy and exceed stated or implied customer needs, and thereby provide customer satisfaction. 2. Freedom from deficiencies.” Let me share with you my investigation and thoughts about this concepts; I would love to ave your thoughts on my post. Thanks!


I appreciate and agree with Tim's comment that the Baldrige Criteria doesn't mention the word quality in because it is built into the very fiber of the organization. So true. I like Jimena's comments related to quality as understanding and knowing our customer's needs. Refering to the Baldrige Criteria - Category 3 (Customer Focus)provides questions related to knowing our customer's. I have a question from this. My question references Ian Wedgewood's book Lean Sigma, A Practitioner's Guide. Would the Lean Six Sigma tool “Customer Interviewing” such as noted in Wedgewood's book be a tool to satisfy or achieve positive results under Category 3 of Baldrige? In the book, it also discusses "Customer Interviewing" as a method to be the primary means to collect qualitative Voice of the Customer(VOC)information during a Lean Sigma project. Also, the book refers to a “Customer Requirement Tree.” They also mention customer surveys? These appear to all be good Lean Sigma tools to apply to Baldrige Criteria 3 (Customer Focus). Any help or correction would be appreciated? Are their better tools? Thanks, Bill I’d just like to get a little help understand ing if these three Lean Sigma tools are key to meeting the Category 3 requirements and if anyone out there has used any of these.

Great post! I see this problem all the time as well. Leaders expect answer to pop out of the tools and processes without them having to provide any insight. Your example of multivariate regression is a good one. You can super crunch giant data sets to find relationships, but someone with business knowledge needs to figure out if those relationships make sense and if they are actionable. I often tell leaders that the data itself is not the story. The story is what is happening in the business, the data simply supports it. Thanks for the post! Six Sigma Certification

I like the definition of quality as lack of waste. Waste is any cost that is incurred because the product or service was not done correctly the first time. If you accept this definition, almost all of the other attempts to define quality become factors or elements of the definition. There are two components of waste, that which is experienced by the producer and that which is experienced by the user or consumer. A product that costs more to produce than it can be marketed for is a waste since it will probably not sell. A product that does not satisfy the clients needs will force the client to expend extra effort to meet those needs which is waste. The units of quality are thus monetary which should be easier to bring to management's attention than most of the other definitions out there.

Nice addition Thomas. This is a good way to look at it but to understand waste you also need to understand value. Many focus on waste because that primary benefits the producer. This can't be ignored but foremost we must add value to the customer. This is about meeting and exceeding expectations (those defined and those not). Also, I would say quality's measure is not only monetary but also delivery. The customer wants the right product at the right time in the right quantity at the right price to perform precisely in the right way. That is why I say "Quality" means different things to different people. But as Deming states the customer's definition of quality is the only one that matters.

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A great business model for sustained performance begins here. For 40 years Juran has helped global organizations grasp some simple concepts that lead to sustained performance. This begins with understanding that it is important to develop your organization business model for quality or adopt one like the Juran Excellence Model. Our model applies to all industries, businesses, products, services, people and processes.

The Juran Excellence Model Components

The Juran Excellence Model consists of five key components, which together describe your approach to better business results and a culture of excellence:

1.  A set of guiding universal principles

2.  Great customer experience focused

3.  Creating a structure and selecting the right methods

4.  Launching of the right projects at the right time

5.  Leadership and workforce engagement

The Guiding Principles

An important step to establishing a culture of excellence is to create a set of guiding principles that will underpin your approach to quality leadership. The Juran Excellence Model has four principles to drive improved business performance that has worked across all industries.

Principle 1: Embrace Quality Leadership as a business strategy. Quality is not just a word that your customers will use to convey the goodness or problems with your products and services. It is also a philosophy of being.  To help deliver better business performance, your leaders and employees must understand what your customers mean and convey that throughout your organization.  It means different things to different people, including your own employees and leaders. At Juran we can help you understand the two aspects of what quality means to them. First use the definition that your customers expect of all your products, services and interactions to be “fit for their purpose” in two distinct ways:

  • The product & service must have the features that I want (the characteristics of your product that meets their needs and will impact sales)
  • Be free from failure (it does not harm me, cost me more than I paid for it, inconvenience me or fail)

Principle 2: Believe that superior quality products and services always leads to sustainable financial performance . The Juran approach to exceeding your customers need for quality is embodied in the way your organization manages for quality. Organizations such as Amazon, Toyota and  other successful companies do not just control quality they plan for it, design it in, and continuously improve on it. This is the Juran Trilogy at work. Managing for quality leadership requires three managerial processes all interrelated to each other.

Principle 3: Use The Juran Trilogy  as the means to manage for excellence to ensure goods and service superiority.

  • Quality planning (design quality in)
  • Quality control (maintain what is designed)
  • Quality improvement (create breakthroughs in current performance)

Principle 4: Adopt the Pareto Principle : You don’t have to improve everything. Your leaders must focus on the ‘vital few’ issues that will gain the most results.

The Juran "House of Quality"

We can help your organization adopt its own Quality Business Model similar to the Juran Excellence Model shown here. The Model consists of three layers (floors in the house of quality):

1. Developing a strong foundation and business strategy to be the best. 2. Understanding and implementing ‘enablers’ including engagement of the workforce. 3. A clear set of outcomes that lead to quality leadership and sustaining business results.

journey quality definition

10 min read

Improving a business is about more than just increasing efficiencies or maximizing ROI. Today’s global economy also requires the flexibility to adjust to changing markets, conditions and technologies. Operational excellence is a way for organizations to create a roadmap toward continuous improvement in a complex business environment.

Its goal is to give companies a competitive advantage. If done right, operational excellence helps business leaders make better decisions and employees show continuous improvement. Companies that are better at problem-solving and process improvement, the theory goes, will ultimately exceed their competition in profitability.

Here, we’ll explore the core principles of operational excellence and how companies are using technology to implement these methodologies.

Operational excellence (OpEx) is an approach to business management that emphasizes continuous improvement across all aspects of the business and within all business processes by creating a culture where management and employees are invested in business outcomes and empowered to implement change. When implemented well, every member of an organization sees the flow of value to the customer and, if problems arise, finds a solution before any disruptions occur.

Operational excellence begins with a culture shift, where all leaders and employees are dedicated to creating not only a quality product but also providing great customer experiences. Businesses that use operational excellence methodologies clearly define leadership and workforce roles and how they work together to improve operations. At all levels, employees can initiate change and drive toward efficiency, effectiveness and agility.

The definition of operational excellence has its roots in the Shingo Model, an approach to business that emphasizes quality at the source, value to the customers, a zero-inventory  supply chain  and an understanding of the workplace at all levels. It was created by Dr. Shigeo Shingo, a business leader who published 18 books on his philosophy and closely collaborated with Toyota executives to apply his principles in their manufacturing operations.

Shingo is also the inspiration for the Shingo Prize, awarded annually by the Shingo Institute for Operational Excellence at Utah State University. This prize defines the 10 Shingo Guiding Principles, often referred to as the core principles of operational excellence:

  • Respect every individual:  When people feel respected and valued by an organization, they are more likely to give more. Respect seeks to draw the best from individual contributors.
  • Lead with humility:  When decisions are made unilaterally, frontline employees are less likely to respect the decisions being made. To lead with humility, companies must implement a management system where leaders seek input and buy-in from stakeholders at all levels.
  • Seek perfection:  This principle is similar to the adage, “You have to believe it to achieve it.” By seeking ways to continuously improve, you can open the door to new ways of thinking and innovation.
  • Embrace scientific thinking:  This principle is not just about being data-driven. Creating a culture where employees are able to “experiment” and test new ideas based on observations and data fosters innovation.
  • Focus on process:  If something goes wrong, instead of blaming people (which can be counterproductive), look for ways the process can be improved.
  • Assure quality at the source:  Much like good food is made with good ingredients, assuring quality in business relies on doing work right the first time, using the right people and the right components.
  • Improve flow and pull:  Providing value to the customer means having the products that they demand when they need them and nothing more, which is exemplified in lean supply chains.
  • Think systemically:  Instead of focusing on individual players or departments for improvement, think of ways to improve the entire system.
  • Create constancy of purpose:  Communication of goals, purpose, commitment to the customer and the “why” behind the company are key to operational excellence.
  • Create value for the customer:  Ultimately, all businesses are all about the customer, so operations should reflect the value customers hold and should be provided.

As the Shingo Model gained popularity within the business world, others developed methodologies based on this approach and the core principles of operational excellence. These include:

  • Lean manufacturing:  Lean manufacturing is a systematic method designed to minimize waste while keeping productivity constant.
  • Six Sigma:  Six Sigma is a set of methodologies, tools and techniques used to improve processes and minimize defects. It’s sometimes combined with lean manufacturing principles and then known as “lean Six Sigma.”
  • Kaizen:  Focused on continuous improvement, Kaizen emphasizes teamwork and proactively taking responsibility for designated areas within the organization to make incremental improvements.

When implementing operational excellence within an organization, it can be helpful to view the process as an ongoing journey rather than a final destination. Because the focus is on continuous improvement, business leaders and employees should always strive for ways to get better at what they do.

That being said, organizations need to establish goals and define metrics to understand if and how they are improving. These metrics include key performance indicators (KPIs), such as sales increases, health and safety performance and workforce retention rates.

Here are the types of goals that are often included in operational excellence-based processes:

  • Operational goals:  How the company operates, including efficiency and safety. For example, an organization might seek to accelerate order to cash, solve problems with the supply chain or improve the delivery of services.
  • Financial goals:  Metrics related to sales and losses. These goals could be to lower churn, efficiently enter new markets or improve the marketing-to-sales pipeline.
  • Culture and workforce goals:  These include measuring worker satisfaction, offering professional development and investing in worker retention. This could entail initiatives to create a more inclusive culture, creating a more equitable compensation package or incentivizing professional development.

Value flow to customers

Operational excellence goals are typically focused on delivering value to the customer. What is value? Essentially, it’s what the customer demands and is willing to pay for.

Within the operational excellence methodology, companies provide this value by creating value streams. A value stream refers to the processes and initiatives that an organization creates to deliver the products and services the customers’ need in the time it takes to meet that demand.

For example, a  data center  that can keep up with customer demand and has the compute, storage and networking resources needed to service online transactions without overprovisioning is seen as a value stream that is running smoothly.

Communicating operational excellence

Communication is another key element for reaching operational excellence goals. If employees aren’t aware of company goals, have no idea how to deliver value to the customer or feel leadership is not invested in their professional success, it makes it difficult to achieve goals and continuously improve.

Implementation often includes a plan for communicating all aspects of the program, such as the mission, goals and those impacted to all employees. Companies that excel in operational excellence often have a well-designed internal communication system, as well as a forum for receiving and addressing feedback.

Operational excellence requires organizations to look critically at their operations and how they manage employees. In some cases, they must be willing to shift their culture. Being open to continuous change helps companies better implement methodologies and reach these benefits:

  • Optimized workflows:  Part of creating an unhindered flow of value to the customer is being able to see and address roadblocks, supply chain issues and misaligned priorities. When using business management tools, companies can gain visibility into  workflows  and business processes to make them more efficient. For example, with better workflow modeling, they can get to the root cause of bottlenecks and redundancies and eliminate overproduction or waste.
  • Lower operational risk:  Reducing risk is a primary goal of any business strategy, and a primary benefit of operational excellence. With the efficiencies that it brings, companies can also lower operating costs and increase revenues, especially when compared to competitors.
  • Standardized work and outcomes:  Having standards of how work should be done and what the end product looks like improves efficiency and overall business outcomes.
  • Accountability:  Defining roles and providing performance evaluations at all levels ensures that people have clear expectations.
  • Employee empowerment:  Instead of a “top-down” culture where the CEO has a hand in business decisions throughout all departments, operational excellence strives to create a model where leadership makes strategic decisions and empowers frontline employees with the resources and decision-making abilities they need to succeed.

Operational excellence can benefit just about every industry and business model, however, there are some industries where operational excellence has become a standard in operations: 

  • Manufacturing:  Companies like Motorola and BAE Systems have employed operational excellence methodologies to enhance productivity, decrease downtime and cut out waste.
  • IT:  Using the core principles of operational excellence gives IT teams a way to minimize development rework and improve workflow efficiency in a fast-paced environment.
  • Healthcare:  With a focus on customer experience, operational excellence helps healthcare providers reduce wait times, improve patient portals and better track patient outcomes.
  • Construction:  Using operational excellence helps construction companies ensure worker safety, efficient workforce management and cost-effective sourcing of materials.

Automation, process analysis, observability and data and business management tools can help companies more quickly implement—and stick with—continuous improvement.

Business automation

Companies have been looking to automation for decades to create efficiencies and harness the power of digital technology. This could include automating hands-on tasks on the assembly line with machinery or  automating back-office tasks  like accounting and billing with software solutions.

There are many tasks that require creative thinking, intuition and strategy planning that only people can perform. However, automation tools can be used to perform the repetitive and mundane tasks, such as prepopulating invoices with account information and transferring data to multiple back-end systems that can save people time:

  • Business process management software:  The business process management approach is iterative; you don’t implement it once, never to be touched again. Instead, you design, model, create, simulate, monitor and optimize your processes on a regular basis.  Business process management tools  help companies maintain this iterative process to create, analyze and improve business processes for continuous improvement.
  • Process modeling:  A key concept in operational excellence is identifying abnormal flow—where the process has broken down—and figure out how to fix it.  Process modeling  gives a visual representation of business processes or workflows that companies can use to identify opportunities for efficiencies and better workflow. If a company wants to know what’s happening at every step of their supply chain process, it would use data modeling.
  • Process mapping:  Organizations  gather information  from employees to create a visualized model of the workflows. If a company wants to clarify which departments own each part of the procurement process, it would use  data mapping .
  • Decision management:  Companies recognize that streamlined, automated decision-making is key to being able to respond quickly to market pressures and pivot without losing momentum. When policies and business logic are embedded directly into application code, it can take weeks or even months for IT to recode.  Decision management  software allows business users to model and manage operational decisions that are repeatable, automated and in compliance with business guidelines and regulations.
  • Robotic process automation:   Robotic process automation , also known as software robotics, uses automation technologies to mimic back-office tasks of human workers, such as extracting data, filling in forms, moving files, et cetera. It combines  APIs  and user interface (UI) interactions to integrate and perform repetitive tasks between enterprise and productivity applications. By deploying scripts which emulate human processes, RPA tools complete autonomous execution of various activities and transactions across unrelated software systems.

IT automation

In today’s digital-first age, customer satisfaction depends on the performance and availability of business-critical applications and infrastructure. As such,  IT operations (ITOps)  teams are under immense pressure to deliver operational excellence and must move at the pace of increasing business demands.  AIOps  drives efficiency and optimization in a modern, dynamic IT environment to accelerate necessary digital transformation.

Using software to create processes that reduce or replace manual interaction with IT systems, AIOps brings real-time insights to IT environments so that IT operations teams can assure proactive, continuous application performance that enables exceptional customer experiences, while increasing compliance and safely reducing cost across high variability of demand:

  • Full-stack enterprise observability:  Modern applications, services and environments are continuously becoming more complex, and traditional monitoring tools lack the visibility that’s required to achieve the operational excellence needed in these new environments. Enterprise  observability  platforms, powered by automated APM, deliver full visibility by automatically ingesting observability metrics, tracing every request and profiling all processes across  microservice  platforms and the  CI/CD pipeline . Enterprise observability enables ITOps teams to discover, map and monitor the full application stack, including all interdependencies, providing immediate feedback after any change.
  • Application resource management (ARM) and optimization:  Businesses often face the challenge of balancing the right number of resources for business applications while limiting as much overallocation as possible. When organizations come to terms with overallocating any of their applications, it is often unsustainable and costly. Modern applications are separated by multiple layers of abstraction, making it difficult to understand which underlying physical server, storage and networking resources are supporting which applications. Application resource management drives OpEx by automatically assuring applications get the resources they need to perform, no matter where they run or how they are built. ARM eliminates resource congestion at every level of the application stack, from the business application to the underlying hybrid and multicloud environment.
  • Proactive incident resolution, remediation and avoidance:  A few seconds of application downtime can cost millions in lost revenue, reputational damage or regulatory penalties. To avoid these pitfalls, enterprises want to better predict IT outages and resolve them more quickly. With proactive incident resolution and remediation, ITOps teams gather new insights faster and with context, transforming user experiences and improving business outcomes. Proactive incident management platforms use explainable  AI  to help CIOs and ITOps teams detect and diagnose complex issues by connecting the dots between  structured and unstructured data  in real-time to give users a holistic understanding of IT incidents, enabling businesses to drive toward operational excellence within their IT estate.


As transformation efforts quicken across the globe, they also introduce a serious side effect—pushing data out into silos and impeding access to information that business teams need to be successful. Organizations that can quickly and securely connect applications and systems will outperform those that don’t. Without the right integration tools, data stays locked away, hampering your ability to make informed business decisions and implement scalable automations that uncover new efficiencies:

  • API management:  APIs are in use everywhere. They connect your systems and applications so you can access and expose your data in a secure way. Having a strong  API management  strategy and toolset is critical to being able to create, manage, secure and socialize APIs with internal and external consumers.
  • Application integration:  To make effective business decisions, you need to ensure you can trust your data. With  application integration , you can move and transform data between applications and systems—no matter where it resides—so existing and newly deployed applications are seamlessly integrated throughout your organization.
  • Event streaming:  To optimize value flow to customers, businesses need to gain insights from real-time data to make informed choices that improve operations and act quickly in response to shifting customer needs.  Event streaming  allows you to capture and integrate streaming event data from your applications so you can automate customer-facing and backend actions based on defined triggers.
  • Enterprise messaging:  With an explosion in the number and types of systems within a typical enterprise, cost-effective, scalable system-to-system integration has become a challenge. Enterprise messaging is a proven technology that connects systems and their data in the most flexible, highly available and secure way. Critical data, like a financial transaction, is sent between systems in the form of messages and held in a queue if it can’t be delivered immediately (like in the case of a system outage) to ensure it’s sent successfully, never lost and never sent more than once.
  • High-speed file transfer:  Companies that need to transfer very large files over long distances under varying network conditions are challenged by the Internet’s underlying transfer technology, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Fast, Adaptive and Secure Protocol (FASP) takes a different approach to file transfer, allowing businesses to achieve transfer speeds of 100x faster than traditional methods.

Seven ways IBM can help companies achieve operational excellence using intelligent automation:

  • Completely understand your processes before you automate with process mining.
  • Put automation in the hands of your employees with digital workers.
  • Improve productivity and reduce errors with RPA.
  • Assure application performance with smarter resource management.
  • Improve application performance monitoring with observability.
  • Connect your apps and data to automate your business.
  • Manage your API lifecycle with API management.

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noun as in travel from one place to another

Strongest matches

  • exploration

Strong matches

  • constitutional
  • peregrination
  • transmigration
  • vagabondage

verb as in travel

  • peregrinate

Weak matches

  • knock about
  • take a trip

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Example sentences.

If either is selected, it would not launch until 2026 at the earliest, and would take at least a few months to make the journey.

The job is a cherry on top, but the journey and the experience of being able to audition and leave your heart in the room and feel good about it, no matter what happens, that’s rare and that was amazing.

Cross-device measurement helps connect the dots of your customer’s journey and ensures you know how effective your campaigns are at driving user behavior.

You are somewhat of a new grandmother and you’ve been enjoying that journey.

Instead of having numerous articles addressing each of these particular questions, brands and publishers could consolidate this information as it is all pertinent to the same stage of the journey that the user is in.

The brokers then scout out potential “crew members” who can earn substantial discounts for working the journey.

The next day, after driving to Putney on the outskirts of London, we start the end of our journey.

The NYPD Emerald Society pipes and drums struck up a slow march and the procession began the journey to the cemetery.

We began a journey with Koenig in the first episode of Serial.

But the sunlight is threatening to fade and a three-and-a-half-hour river journey back to Kisangani looms.

With a hammer the boy knocked off some of the slats of the small box in which Squinty had made his journey.

Then summoning a smart young jemadar with whom he had talked a good deal during the journey, he asked him to read the chit.

But dismissing them from our thoughts for the time being, as we did then from our presence, let us continue our journey.

If the journey is now distasteful to her, she has but her own rashness to blame in having sought it herself.

It was past sundown when they left San Bernardino, but a full moon made the night as good as day for their journey.

Related Words

Words related to journey are not direct synonyms, but are associated with the word journey . Browse related words to learn more about word associations.

noun as in existence

  • subsistence

noun as in revolution, track, boundary

  • bound/bounds
  • circulation
  • circumference
  • circumnavigation
  • circumscription
  • circumvolution
  • perambulation

verb as in sail

  • keep steady pace
  • push off/push on
  • wander about

noun as in sailing expedition

verb as in travel, visit

  • pass through

Viewing 5 / 72 related words

On this page you'll find 148 synonyms, antonyms, and words related to journey, such as: adventure, campaign, course, crossing, drive, and expedition.

From Roget's 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition Copyright © 2013 by the Philip Lief Group.

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Definition of journeyman

Did you know.

The journey in journeyman refers to a sense of the familiar word not often used anymore: "a day's labor." This sense of journey was first used in the 14th century. When journeyman appeared the following century, it originally referred to a person who, having learned a handicraft or trade through an apprenticeship, worked for daily wages. In the 16th century, journeyman picked up a figurative (and mainly deprecatory) sense; namely, "one who drudges for another." These days, however, journeyman has little to do with drudgery, and lots to do with knowing a trade inside out.

Examples of journeyman in a Sentence

These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word 'journeyman.' Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback about these examples.

Word History

Middle English, from journey journey, a day's labor + man

15th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1

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Cite this Entry

“Journeyman.” Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, Accessed 26 May. 2024.

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Donaldson L, Ricciardi W, Sheridan S, et al., editors. Textbook of Patient Safety and Clinical Risk Management [Internet]. Cham (CH): Springer; 2021. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-59403-9_10

Cover of Textbook of Patient Safety and Clinical Risk Management

Textbook of Patient Safety and Clinical Risk Management [Internet].

Chapter 10 the patient journey.

Elena Beleffi , Paola Mosconi , and Susan Sheridan .


Published online: December 15, 2020.

The wide implementation of patient safety improvement efforts continues to face many barriers including insufficient involvement of all stakeholders in healthcare, lack of individual and organizational learning when medical errors occur and scarce investments in patient safety. The promotion of systems-based approaches offers methods and tools to improve the safety of care. A multidisciplinary perspective must include the involvement of patients and citizens as fundamental contributors to the design, implementation, and delivery of health services.

The patient journey is a challenging example of using a systems approach. The inclusion of the patient’s viewpoint and experience about their health journey throughout the time of care and across all the care settings represents a key factor in improving patient safety. Patient engagement ensures that the design of healthcare services are aligned with the values, the preferences, and needs of the patient community and integrates the real-life experience and the skills of the people to enhance patient safety in the patient journey.

The utmost priority to implement patient engagement is the training of patients. Therefore, training for both patients/families/advocates and health professionals is the foundation on which to build active engagement of patients and consequently an effective and efficient patient journey.

The chapter offers examples of successful training courses designed to foster strategic alliances among healthcare professionals and researchers with patients and their organizations. Training of patients constitutes the first step to develop shared knowledge, co-produced projects, and the achievement of active multilevel participation of patients for the implementation of patient safety in the patient journey.

10.1. Introduction

Almost 20 years after publication “To Err is Human: Building a Better Health System” (Kohn et al. 1999), patient safety is still not widely implemented. This report from the Institute of Medicine is the milestone that constituted a turning point for improving quality of care and patient safety identifying the need to rethink healthcare delivery to provide safe, effective, and efficient care.

The barriers of implementing patient safety as a driving force for change towards more effective healthcare include multiple factors: insufficient involvement of all stakeholders contributing to the care process, lack of willingness of organizations and individuals to learn from errors and scarce investments in patient safety improvement and research.

There is a growing need to promote systems approaches to finding solutions in healthcare to improve the safety of care, the quality of healthcare delivery, patients’ health and citizens’ well-being.

The discussion paper “Bringing a Systems Approach to Health” defines the systems approach as one “that applies scientific insights to understand the elements that influence health outcomes; models the relationships between those elements; and alters design, processes, or policies based on the resultant knowledge in order to produce better health at lower cost” [ 1 ].

A multidisciplinary approach must include the involvement of citizens and patients as fundamental contributors to the design, implementation, delivery, and evaluation of health services.

This means that citizen participation plays an essential role, bringing the unique point of view of patients and family members into the debate on patient safety and quality of care.

Patients and more generally citizens, when actively and systematically engaged, bring ideas and experiences which can support a collaborative and reciprocal learning process among the healthcare stakeholders. This produces knowledge that leads to improved practices, a real knowledge creation process where the dynamic participation of all actors in healthcare systems contribute to an active learning environment where the identification, the investigation, and the planning of solutions related to health incidents is a cyclic process enabling healthcare knowledge creation.

The added value of involving patients in healthcare is, respect to other more complex interventions, a low cost opportunity to take into consideration unconventional points of view creating and building knowledge and providing original insights and ideas that otherwise would not be considered.

Health professionals and patients’ skills and knowledge are acquired through individual experience or education and transferred to the health organizations in a perspective of co-production of healthcare. It is a merging of the efforts of those who produce and those who use the solutions to address health problems. It serves to establish a strengthened and long-term relationship in terms of trust and effectiveness and to distribute the responsibilities among all stakeholders [ 2 ].

In light of these arguments, the systems approach—inspired by the fundamentals of ergonomics and human factors (HFE)—creates new alliances between healthcare and engineering, of which patient journey is a challenging example [ 3 ].

Applying the systems approach to patient safety allows the analysis of the factors that characterize the encounters and the interactions between healthcare professionals and patients during the entire course of care. The observation of possible critical issues to the individual and specific encounter between clinician and patient is crucial in widening the scope of observation and research of the entire “journey” of the patient, taking into consideration the complexity of patient, their values and needs, their preferences, the economic and social context in which they live, and language and communication issues.

These observations and research should be carried out considering the interconnections and interactions together with the components of the processes; importance should be given to the context, and to manage the complexity, the value of a holistic approach.

10.2. The Patient Journey

A modern health system looks to the future in the context of the challenges imposed by the real world. It must manage the gap between guidelines and health protocols and what effectively happens and how reality is perceived by patients and family members.

It is more and more necessary to bring the patient’s point of view in the analysis of the care process, in the incident reporting and analysis, in the design and implementation of solutions and guidelines in healthcare.

Vincent and Amalberti in “Safer Healthcare” (2016) [ 4 ] stated that the incident analysis should broaden the class of events having consequences on patient safety. Incidents reported from the patient’s point of view should be included in addition to those suggested by health professionals. Additionally, when analyzing an incident, it should be done in the context of the patient journey rather than a single episode.

Instead of focusing on the individual encounter, it is necessary to extend the observation timeframe by applying the examination of contributing factors to each of the encounters that compose the patient journey (temporal series of encounters with healthcare facilities, a hospital unit, a specialist visit, a primary care clinic, a home health agency), considering both the negative and positive events and the points for improvement that were revealed (Fig. 10.1 ).

Analysis of safety along the patient journey

The adoption of this wider approach is unique in that it incorporates the patient’s perspective of safety and includes new features in the incident analysis such as asking patients to recount the episode of care, including patient and family in the investigation team when possible, asking patients the contributory factors from their point of observation and perception and involving patients and families in the reflections and comments on the disclosure process [ 4 ].

The episodes patients and families can highlight are often different from those that professionals are more accustomed to reporting. However, patients could be involved in further ways in incident reporting and assessment, and today patient-derived information constitutes a free and little used resource.

As per McCarthy’s definition, “patient journey mapping describes the patient experience, including tasks within encounters, the emotional journey, the physical journey, and the various touch points” [ 5 ]. Carayon and Woldridge define “patient journey as the spatio-temporal distribution of patients’ interactions with multiple care settings over time” [ 3 ], where at each point of touch with each healthcare service along the patient journey, the patient interacts with several system elements (task interaction, physical environment, interaction with tools and technologies, organization interaction, interaction with other organizations and other people, interaction with other people and teams within the organization) (Fig. 10.2 ).

The patient journey as a set of interactions and transitions

The patient journey represents the time sequence of what happens to the patient, especially during transitions of care, in particular considering that the health professional who takes care of the patient only sees the portion of care for which he is responsible and in which he has an active role. Conversely, the patient is the only person who has a continuously active and first-hand role during their health journey. They alone are in possession of information that characterizes the entire care experience.

Moreover, when patients navigate their journey, they contact and interface with multiple work systems at several time points, where the sequence of interactions in the work systems determine the outcome experienced by patients and families, healthcare professionals, and health organizations. (Fig. 10.3 ). Each local work system is influenced by a wider socio-organizational context, which can be formal healthcare organization (such as hospital, primary care facility, nursing home) or informal (home).

SEIPS 3.0 model: sociotechnical systems approach to patient journey and patient safety

Every point of the patient journey offers data on health outcomes and patient experience outcomes that should be used as feedback to redesign healthcare work systems in terms of adaptation, learning, improvement.

Patient’s experience represents an important resource in participatory collaborative design, especially in the patient journey where this experience is the result of multiple interactions across space and time.

10.3. Contextualizing Patient Safety in the Patient Journey

Many of the incidents or near-misses during healthcare are not due to serious errors, but to the combination of small failures, such as limited experience of a recently qualified doctor, use of obsolete equipment, an infection difficult to diagnose or inadequate communication within a team.

We know that the analysis of an incident requires looking back to the succession of events that have occurred and that led to the problematic episode, considering both active and latent errors, and all the aspects connected directly or indirectly. It is fundamental to examine the safety of the entire patient journey, all the encounters that make up the entire care process, to study the whole medical history of the patient in an attempt to reconstruct all the elements that characterize the “health journey”, not only from the viewpoint of the health professionals, but also from that of the patient and family.

In light of these arguments, new concepts, tools, models, and methods need to be embraced to support patient safety in the patient journey.

A significant contribution in terms of concepts, frameworks, and models is offered by Industrial and Systems Engineering, and often human factors and systems engineering (HF/SE) have an approach to include the preferences and the needs of stakeholders when designing solutions to address the critical aspects of a health process.

Human factors and ergonomics are described as “the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. Practitioners of ergonomics and ergonomists contribute to the design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, environments and systems in order to make them compatible with the needs, abilities and limitations of people. Ergonomics helps harmonize things that interact with people in terms of people’s needs, abilities and limitations” [ 6 ].

Process models have found widespread use in drug management, visit planning, care transition, to name a few, and can offer tools and methods to investigate interprofessional and physician–patient communication, interruptions and health information handover.

Drawing from the finding of Carayon’s studies [ 3 ], the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model gives a description of five work system elements which when applied to a definite patient journey model should outline who (person) is doing what (tasks) with tool and technologies, taking into consideration the physical and organizational environment where all these activities take place. All these factors have to be examined for both patients and workers and the process analysis and modelling have to consider what patients and families/caregivers, healthcare professionals and workers actually do ( work-as-done versus work-as-imaginated ).

Patients, families, and caregivers are deeply involved in the healthcare process due to the tasks they carry out in the intermediate sectors of care between encounters. Away from direct interactions with professionals, they have to perform multiple actions requiring understanding of what behaviour to adopt, which instructions to follow, how to administer a medication and how to communicate with hospital doctors, general practitioner, and home healthcare professionals [ 3 ].

Taking into account what has been highlighted so far, one of the leading and most challenging keys to success in improving patient safety is to adopt a systems approach to patient safety which includes the patient’s perspective about their health journey throughout the time of care and across all the care settings.

This assumption highlights that patients and their families are valuable resources and can play an important role in patient safety improvement efforts. Viewing health systems as “co-producing systems”, patients can engage as partners in co-producing patient safety improvement activities individually, in groups and collectively. Individual patient and family member participation/co-production of safer care is fundamental. Equally as important is the co-management and co-governance of healthcare services, in addition to the engagement of communities in policy definition and designing activities.

In fact, patient engagement directs the design of healthcare systems towards the preferences, the values, the real-life experiences, and—not less important—the skills of the people to enhance patient safety in the patient journey.

Such a change of perspective involves multiple dimensions of interactions and relationship between patients and professionals, encompassing cooperation, dialogue and listening, trust, reciprocity and peer-to-peer work [ 2 ].

It follows that on the one hand the healthcare organizations have to demonstrate the willingness to support health professionals to effectively engage patients in the patient journey to achieve the common goal of reducing the risk of patient harm or incidents as well as the willingness to integrate patients and family members as partners into quality and safety improvement efforts. On the other hand, it is necessary to motivate and encourage patients and families/caregivers to actively participate during the individual care process for safer care as well as partner in organizational patient safety improvement efforts to ensure safer care for others.

The working group Patient and Family Involvement for the delivery of Safe and Quality Care [ 7 ] stated that the utmost priority to realize the patient involvement is the training of patients, followed by the promotion of interdisciplinary training programmes for healthcare professionals to promote patient and family engagement, the implementation of multilevel structures that allow for participatory processes by patients and smarter allocation of resources in healthcare that supports involving citizens in patient safety improvement efforts for better healthcare.

This working group was part of the activities of the “1st International Meeting about Patient safety for new generations—Florence, 31st August and 1st September 2018” organized by the Centre for Clinical Risk Management and Patient Safety, Tuscany Region—WHO Collaborating Centre for in Human Factors and Communication for the Delivery of Safe and Quality care [ 7 ].

Therefore, training for both patients/families/advocates and health professionals is a pillar on which to build active engagement of patients and consequently an effective and efficient patient journey. From this perspective, the participation of patients (i.e. representatives of patients’ associations and organizations, patient and citizen advocates) in training courses—specifically designed for this target audience of trainees and aimed to encourage co-production of care—is an essential and effective activity to co-produce a better healthcare system in terms of quality and safety of care.

Sharing a common language, promoting citizens’ and patients’ awareness of importance of co-production of care, teaching the key role that patients can play in making treatments safer (investments in health literacy), learning to work together and within a network (locally, regionally, and nationally/internationally) on priority safety and quality of care issues: these are some of the main strengths of training courses aimed to be at the basis of active engagement of patients and citizens.

Examples of successful training courses include “PartecipaSalute” and “Accademia del Cittadino” organized in Italy by Laboratory for Medical Research and Consumers Involvement of the Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS and the Centre for Clinical Risk Management and Patient Safety, Tuscany Region. The following paragraph describes this educational experience which is specifically designed for citizens and patients to improve their knowledge and skills in patient safety and quality of care, with the aim of co-producing better healthcare services.

10.4. From PartecipaSalute to the Accademia del Cittadino: The Importance of Training Courses to Empower Patients

Over the last few years in the field of health and research and with regard to participation and involvement of citizens and patients, we have witnessed the transition from a paternalist to a partnership model. Individual citizens and those citizens involved in patients’ associations or groups have acquired a new role: no longer passive but actively involved in decision-making regarding health, healthcare, and research in the health field [ 8 , 9 ].

This is a progressive step-by-step process based on the recognition and implementation of the key concepts such as health literacy and empowerment. Health literacy, more properly used at individual level is defined as the capacity to obtain, read, understand, and use healthcare information in order to make appropriate health decisions and follow instructions for treatment [ 10 ]. Empowerment, more used at the community level, is a process that, starting from the acquisition of accurate knowledge and skills, enables groups to express their needs and more actively participate to request better assistance, care, and research. At this level, the availability of organized independent and evidence-based training courses is essential to allow people to be able to critically appraise and use information about the effects of healthcare interventions. Consequently, they will have the skills to participate in the multidisciplinary working groups (composed of researchers, health professionals, patient and citizen advocates, institutional representatives).

In the late 1990s, the Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS held the first training courses of this kind focused at breast cancer associations. Some years later, within the project PartecipaSalute—a not-for-profit research project designed to foster a strategic alliance among healthcare professionals, patients, and their organizations—an ad hoc training programme for representatives of citizens’ and patients’ organizations was defined with a multimodule format [ 11 , 12 ]. This was an innovative approach, at least in the Italian setting in that period.

PartecipaSalute training programme has combined different experiences: the Mario Negri Institute IRCCS experience in collaborative research activities with patients’ associations, the Italian Cochrane Centre with the activities aimed at promoting the principles of evidence-based medicine, and Zadig long-term experience in health communication. The above promoters jointly developed the PartecipaSalute training programme on the belief that data are more important than opinions, and that every decision should be supported by well-conducted research data.

The spread of this belief to patients and citizens with the purpose of stronger involvement was a key point of PartecipaSalute training courses.

Therefore, patient, family, and community knowledge of the principles of how evidence is developed through clinical research is essential to make or support decisions in the health debate, to promote better clinical research, or to convey correct information. The strength of the PartecipaSalute programme was based on the exchange of experiences in an interactive way aimed at creating opportunities for discussion, overcoming the teacher–learner model. Each session started with an interactive discussion of a real situation—such as a screening, vaccination, therapy—and after sharing data, opinions or articles from media, evidence was presented and discussed, underlining significant methodological aspects. The programme offered the opportunity to debate the value and significance of the methodology offering critical appraisal tools. Each participant was invited to take an active part, starting from direct personal or associative experience. Table 10.1 presents the topics considered in the first three editions of the training programme. The participation was free, and different types of materials were provided including an ad hoc manual published by PartecipaSalute, copies of the PowerPoint presentation and articles.

Table 10.1

Topics considered in PartecipaSalute [4] and PartecipaSalute-Accademia del Cittadino training courses

Considering the characteristics of the programme and its modular structure, the PartecipaSalute training programme could be adapted to specific contexts. In fact, the experience of PartecipaSalute was adopted at the regional level by Regione Toscana (Centre for Clinical Risk Management and Patient Safety and the Quality of healthcare and Clinical pathways of Health Department, Tuscany Region) developing a more specific training programme called PartecipaSalute-Accademia del Cittadino (Academy of Citizen), focused on patient safety and risk management. In particular, after some modules on methods related to evidence-based medicine, uncertainties in medicine and information and communication in health, the training was mainly dedicated to regional and local activities on clinical risk management, the role of patients’ associations to improve patient safety and to support the implementation of best practices, the analysis and data of adverse events and risk assessment in terms of quality and safety in the care processes (Table 10.2 ).

Table 10.2

Topic integration in the PartecipaSalute-Accademia del Cittadino joint courses

The PartecipaSalute-Accademia del Cittadino joint training programme has been implemented in three editions over the last decade and has trained about 100 members of patient and citizen advocates representing 38 patients’ associations. The courses ranged from 5 to 3 modules of 2 days each in residential mode to allow participants to get to know each other and create a network of associations committed to be engaged in clinical research, quality, and healthcare safety issues.

The entire educational experience was characterized by the use of participatory training methods, based on working groups, practical exercises, lectures from experts with opportunities for discussions. As a result of this training course model, the participants were recognized as “expert patients” and were regularly involved in basic activities for promoting patient safety as auditors on significant events and helping to define policies on patient safety at the Tuscany regional level. In addition, they have participated in patient safety walkarounds in hospitals and in developing eight cartoons intended to promote the education of citizens for the prevention of the most diffused risks (such as prevention of infections, prevention of falls and handovers).

Feedback on the satisfaction on tutors, topics discussed and knowledge gained was regularly requested from participants through questionnaires distributed before and after the programme. In general, positive feedback was received; participants appreciated the interactive methods of work, the clarity of the language, and the effort to make difficult problems easy to understand. An ad hoc questionnaire was provided to the participants regarding the methodology of clinical research, always showing an improvement in the self-evaluated knowledge before and after the course. Feedback of the results of the evaluation was also shared with each participant. Most of participants reported their experience to other members of the organization. In particular, in the case of the Regione Toscana training, the possibility of immediately transferring what was learned in the course in all the activities in collaboration with the health institutions, policy makers, and health professionals—such as working groups on patient safety best practices, participation to audits, development of tools to improve health literacy—was appreciated.

Some limitations emerged from these experiences. The selection of participants is the first issue, not only because the training course is accessible to a small number of participants (in general no more than 30 participants), but also because the groups comprised of middle-aged and retired participants, with few younger ones. Additionally, there were few individual patient or family member representatives from patient associations. The majority of those representing patient associations were in managerial or leadership positions. Furthermore, it is difficult to choose between small, local, or bigger regional associations. Residential training courses also restricted the participation for geographical reasons.

The PartecipaSalute and ParteciaSalute-Accademia del Cittadino training experiences show that patients and citizens are willing to get actively involved in healthcare and the research debate. There is a real desire to improve their knowledge and skills on health and research issues and allow some general considerations regarding the active engagement of citizens representing associations and advocacy groups.

In conclusion, it is very important to invest in a process of empowerment aimed to have well-trained activists involved vigorously and constructively in the debate, design, and assessment of health and research. Switching from tokenism to active participation is necessary to effectively partner with patients and the general population to design, plan, and co-produce safer more effective healthcare, while also supporting better more patient-centred research [ 13 , 14 ].

Also, the training courses are feasible and useful, as has recently been discovered also by pharma or other groups that organize courses mainly focused on drugs and drug development, thus directing the participation of the groups more to market needs than to public health.

Furthermore, this training initiative facilitates the networking among associations in part overcoming the difficulties that derive from personalization and division among the associations representing citizens and patients.

Finally, this illustrates the importance of the design and promotion of training courses with institutions, such as the Regione Toscana, in order to be able to implement projects of real collaboration between institutions, healthcare professionals, and consumers’ and patients’ representatives.

10.5. Recommendations

A systemic approach to health can provide valuable models for wider implementation of patient safety. A multidisciplinary approach includes the involvement of citizens and patients as unique stakeholders in the design, implementation, delivery, and assessment of health services.

Involving patients in healthcare is an opportunity to bring uncommon points of view into policy making and to create shared knowledge between healthcare professionals and patients.

The implementation of patients’ and families’/caregivers’ perspectives in the patient journey is the golden opportunity to leverage crucial input, such as experiential knowledge, safer care, patient motivation, and trust and social cohesion into the co-production of safety solutions in healthcare. This represents a way to get closer to person-centred care, to create opportunities for patients to meet and share information and knowledge, to develop structures and policies for patient involvement at different levels (with healthcare systems, universities, and policy makers).

However, little has been done to overcome some healthcare systems barriers: the power imbalance between the doctor and patient, language differences, the lack of diffusion of non-technical skills and, last but not least, the lack of evidence about the value of patient involvement.

To be widely implemented, patient engagement in the patient journey requires courageous leadership, organizational efforts, a wider culture of safety of care, the implementation of multilevel structures for the engagement of patients and resources from smarter spending in healthcare.

Education is the landmark to integrate meaningful patient and citizen engagement in healthcare. Training of patients is the fundamental starting point to develop shared knowledge, co-produce projects, and implement an active multilevel participation of patients and families for the improvement of quality and safety of care.

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( ), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

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  • Cite this Page Beleffi E, Mosconi P, Sheridan S. The Patient Journey. 2020 Dec 15. In: Donaldson L, Ricciardi W, Sheridan S, et al., editors. Textbook of Patient Safety and Clinical Risk Management [Internet]. Cham (CH): Springer; 2021. Chapter 10. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-59403-9_10
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In this Page

  • Introduction
  • The Patient Journey
  • Contextualizing Patient Safety in the Patient Journey
  • From PartecipaSalute to the Accademia del Cittadino: The Importance of Training Courses to Empower Patients
  • Recommendations

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