- Tourism flows
- Innovation and Technology
Tourism flows includes international arrivals and departures as well as nights spent in accommodation by visitors.
- Industrial production
- Tourism GDP
- Tourism receipts and spending
- Tourism employment
Tourism flows Source: Inbound tourism
- Selected data only (.csv)
- Full indicator data (.csv)
- Add this view
- Go to pinboard
©OECD · Terms & Conditions
Find a country by name
- European Union
latest data available
Definition of Tourism flows
Last published in.
Please cite this indicator as follows:
Source database, further indicators related to industry, further publications related to industry.
Your selection for sharing:
- Snapshot of data for a fixed period (data will not change even if updated on the site)
- Latest available data for a fixed period,
- Latest available data,
Copy the URL to open this chart with all your selections.
Use this code to embed the visualisation into your website.
Width: px Preview Embedding
FLOWS - analysis of tourist flows
Tourist destination managers, service providers, researchers want to better understand tourist flows: what impact traffic flows have, when occur traffic peaks, what are the seasonal effects, which areas are more / less congested with tourists, how the weather, holidays and other events affect. With the help of analyses and forecasts, they could prepare for periods of increased visits, adjust marketing activities, service offerings or resources allocation. Today, the study of tourist mobility is largely based on surveys, physical observation and guesswork based on past experience.
FLOWS is one of the four pillars of Tourism 4.0. It will enable GDPR compliant advanced analyses and forecasts of tourist movements based on anonymised data from a multitude of different sources (traffic counters, data from mobile operators, freely accessible Wi-Fi networks, tourist tax, vignettes sold, water and energy consumption, waste, social media posts, etc.). A simple user interface will display traffic flows: excessive traffic loads, seasonal deviations, entrances / exits to destination, movement within the destination, etc. It will be possible to display the analyses in the selected time interval (year, month, week, day), forecasts based on historical data, weighted by special parameters (weekend, weather, national or holiday in other countries, etc.).
Example of visualisation of tourist flows analysis at the country level and for selected region/destination:
Based on these analyses and forecasts, tourist destinations and service providers can adequately prepare for periods of increased number of visits , redirect tourist flows to less congested areas and thus ensure a greater positive impact of tourism and a balanced sustainable development.
FLOWS will also complement the solutions of other providers , e.g. itineraries, reservation systems, revenue management systems, etc. For an optimal performance the system localisation is crucial to allow measuring, analysis and prediction that improves in time. With FLOWS, tourism providers, destination managers and researchers can better understand and manage person flows in overcrowded periods as well as lock-down time to maybe allow partial mobility of travellers to desired zones.
In addition to FLOWS, Tourism 4.0 also consists of T4.0 Core (a collaboration platform from which it draws various data), CIT (redirection of flows through incentives / rewards) and TIM (which knows the destination carrying capacity limits and tells when a destination will be overloaded).
Everyone with aspiration to support better understanding and optimisation of movement in specific areas is welcome to join us and share knowledge and experiences.
Mountaineering 4.0 project brings innovative technologies to the Alpine environment. The Alpine Association of Slovenia, CIPRA Slovenia and Alpine Club Tržič are setting up a footfall monitoring system for the visit of hiking trails. The system collects real-time data on visits to five popular destinations to enable a better understanding of the visits in the Alpine area and to support the sustainable rerouting of Alpine flows.
Arctur and T4.0 partners set up the system of 30 footfall sensors on five destinations: Vršič, Lovrenška jezera, Storžič, Osp and Kum. The collected data show for the first time the actual visit to the Slovenian mountains. The data on the hiking trails visit will also be included in the maPZS application and combined with other relevant and available data: i.e. weather, traffic, mountain accidents, and overnight stays.
Have an idea? Or just want to know more?
Get in touch!
EuropeanaTech 2023 conference
Culture & Creativity Days in Vienna
Trusted European media data space
Slovenian Space Days
Cross-Re-Tour Kick-off Meeting
DATES project high level events
REAL CORP 2023 Conference Held in Ljubljana
Luxembourg Business Forum
Together for EU Tourism stakeholder meeting
Smart Tourism Destinations Project Final Conference
Tourism for the future kick off meeting
Beyond Snow project developments
- Privacy Overview
- Strictly Necessary Cookies
- 3rd Party Cookies
For more information about cookies and data privacy, read our GDPR statement
Strictly Necessary Cookie should be enabled at all times so that we can save your preferences for cookie settings.
If you disable this cookie, we will not be able to save your preferences. This means that every time you visit this website you will need to enable or disable cookies again.
Cookies anonymously record information about the website use and, based on this information, help improving the user experience.
Please enable Strictly Necessary Cookies first so that we can save your preferences!
To read this content please select one of the options below:
Please note you do not have access to teaching notes, tourist flows and inflows: on measuring instruments and the geomathematics of flows.
Transport Survey Methods
ISBN : 978-1-84-855844-1 , eISBN : 978-1-84-855845-8
Publication date: 2 November 2009
The importance of tourism for France's economy and society means that proper knowledge of tourism flows is essential. But designing a measuring system and periodic gathering of statistical data raise several difficulties. First, tourism is, by definition, based on movement, and all phenomena involving movement are difficult to measure. Second, there are many different forms of tourism, including holidays and business trips, short and long stays and so forth. Third, the notion of tourism flows has different meanings for those in charge of road, rail or air traffic management, and for those in charge of tourist visits.
This paper first discusses the ambiguities of the notions used in tourism studies. It emphasises the distinction between tourist flows along transportation routes and those in specific places. It then reviews the proper calculation rules for each of the geographical objects used for measuring tourism phenomena, which are primarily lines and areas. It also addresses some of the problems raised by the failure to comply with these rules in published information.
Third, this paper presents the various systems used to measure tourist flows and inflows, and discusses their usefulness and limitations, before discussing some new developments in the field.
Finally, it examines the potential value of modern communication technologies for mobility studies. More specifically, it raises the issue of striking the right balance between statistical accuracy and individual freedom.
Terrier, C. (2009), "Tourist Flows and Inflows: On Measuring Instruments and the Geomathematics of Flows ", Bonnel, P. , Lee-Gosselin, M. , Zmud, J. and Madre, J.-L. (Ed.) Transport Survey Methods , Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 219-241. https://doi.org/10.1108/9781848558458-013
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Copyright © 2009 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited
We’re listening — tell us what you think
Something didn’t work….
Report bugs here
All feedback is valuable
Please share your general feedback
Join us on our journey
Platform update page.
Visit emeraldpublishing.com/platformupdate to discover the latest news and updates
Questions & More Information
Answers to the most commonly asked questions here
WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION
share this content
- Share this article on facebook
- Share this article on twitter
- Share this article on linkedin
International tourism growth continues to outpace the global economy
- All Regions
- 20 Jan 2020
1.5 billion international tourist arrivals were recorded in 2019, globally. A 4% increase on the previous year which is also forecast for 2020, confirming tourism as a leading and resilient economic sector, especially in view of current uncertainties. By the same token, this calls for such growth to be managed responsibly so as to best seize the opportunities tourism can generate for communities around the world.
According to the first comprehensive report on global tourism numbers and trends of the new decade, the latest UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, this represents the tenth consecutive year of growth.
All regions saw a rise in international arrivals in 2019. However, uncertainty surrounding Brexit, the collapse of Thomas Cook, geopolitical and social tensions and the global economic slowdown all contributed to a slower growth in 2019, when compared to the exceptional rates of 2017 and 2018. This slowdown affected mainly advanced economies and particularly Europe and Asia and the Pacific.
Looking ahead, growth of 3% to 4% is predicted for 2020, an outlook reflected in the latest UNWTO Confidence Index which shows a cautious optimism: 47% of participants believe tourism will perform better and 43% at the same level of 2019. Major sporting events, including the Tokyo Olympics, and cultural events such as Expo 2020 Dubai are expected to have a positive impact on the sector.
Presenting the results, UNWTO Secretary-General Zurab Pololikashvili stressed that “in these times of uncertainty and volatility, tourism remains a reliable economic sector”. Against the backdrop of recently downgraded global economic perspectives, international trade tensions, social unrest and geopolitical uncertainty, “our sector keeps outpacing the world economy and calling upon us to not only grow but to grow better”, he added.
Given tourism’s position as a top export sector and creator of employment, UNWTO advocates the need for responsible growth. Tourism has, therefore, a place at the heart of global development policies, and the opportunity to gain further political recognition and make a real impact as the Decade of Action gets underway, leaving just ten years to fulfill the 2030 Agenda and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals.
The Middle East leads
The Middle East has emerged as the fastest-growing region for international tourism arrivals in 2019, growing at almost double the global average (+8%). Growth in Asia and the Pacific slowed down but still showed above-average growth, with international arrivals up 5%.
Europe where growth was also slower than in previous years (+4%) continues to lead in terms of international arrivals numbers, welcoming 743 million international tourists last year (51% of the global market). The Americas (+2%) showed a mixed picture as many island destinations in the Caribbean consolidated their recovery after the 2017 hurricanes while arrivals fell in South America due partly to ongoing social and political turmoil. Limited data available for Africa (+4%) points to continued strong results in North Africa (+9%) while arrivals in Sub-Saharan Africa grew slower in 2019 (+1.5%).
Tourism spending still strong
Against a backdrop of global economic slowdown, tourism spending continued to grow, most notably among the world’s top ten spenders. France reported the strongest increase in international tourism expenditure among the world’s top ten outbound markets (+11%), while the United States (+6%) led growth in absolute terms, aided by a strong dollar.
However, some large emerging markets such as Brazil and Saudi Arabia reported declines in tourism spending. China, the world’s top source market saw outbound trips increase by 14% in the first half of 2019, though expenditure fell 4%.
Tourism delivering ‘much-needed opportunities’
“The number of destinations earning US$1 billion or more from international tourism has almost doubled since 1998,” adds Mr Pololikashvili. “The challenge we face is to make sure the benefits are shared as widely as possible and that nobody is left behind. In 2020, UNWTO celebrates the Year of Tourism and Rural Development , and we hope to see our sector lead positive change in rural communities, creating jobs and opportunities, driving economic growth and preserving culture.”
This latest evidence of the strength and resilience of the tourism sector comes as the UN celebrates its 75th anniversary . During 2020, through the UN75 initiative the UN is carrying out the largest, most inclusive conversation on the role of global cooperation in building a better future for all, with tourism to be high on the agenda.
- Download Excerpt of World Tourism Barometer, January 2020 (PDF)
- UNWTO World Tourism Barometer Nº18 January 2020
- Tourism in the 2030 Agenda
- Presentation (PDF)
International Tourism Swiftly Overcoming Pandemic Downturn
Tourism on Track for Full Recovery as New Data Shows St...
Tourism Set to Return to Pre-Pandemic Levels in Some Re...
Tourism Recovery Accelerates to Reach 65% of Pre-Pandem...
The Effect of Information Technology on Business and Marketing Intelligence Systems pp 2379–2389 Cite as
Ebb and Flow Theory in Tourism, Hospitality, and Event Management
- Omar A. Alananzeh ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-8233-8037 7 ,
- Ra’ed Masa’deh ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-9070-3732 8 &
- Ibrahim K. Bazazo ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-0259-5485 9
- First Online: 09 February 2023
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI,volume 1056)
This study aims to track the events that affected tourism in Jordan and presents the evolution of tourist inflows and outflows linked to these events. Accordingly, the Ebb and Flow Theory in the service industry is created and discussed. Many terminologies were used in the tourism industry to clarify the incoming and outgoing tourism movement, such as “peak period and recession period”, “high–shoulder and low-shoulder”, “high-season and low-season”, and others. This study sheds light on a new insight that accurately and clearly describes what is happening in the tourism, hospitality, and events industry. It describes the period of prosperity and development in the tourism movement as the Flow, and the period of stagnation and confinement in the global tourist movement as the Ebb. Also, the fluctuation between these two periods is called solstice time. Understanding these periods helps organizations develop their strategies, achieve the desired benefit, improve and innovate in providing optimal service.
- Strategic planning
- Ebb and flow theory
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution .
- Available as PDF
- Read on any device
- Instant download
- Own it forever
- Available as EPUB and PDF
- Durable hardcover edition
- Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
- Free shipping worldwide - see info
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use only
Abu Zayyad, H., Obeidat, Z. M., Alshurideh, M. T., Abuhashesh, M., & Maqableh, M. (2020). Corporate social responsibility and patronage intentions: The mediating effect of brand credibility. Journal of Marketing Communication s. https://doi.org/10.1080/13527266.2020.1728565
Abuamoud, I., Ibrahim, A., & Hijawi, L. (2019). Estimating the economic impact of tourism in the north of Jordan through the I-O approach. European Research Studies Journal, XXII (1), 254–266.
Abuhashesh, M., Al-Khasawneh, M., & Al-Dmour, R. (2019). The impact of facebook on Jordanian consumers’ decision process in the hotel selection. IBIMA Business Review . https://doi.org/10.5171/2019.928418,2019
CrossRef Google Scholar
Adamou, A., & Clerides, S. (2009). Tourism, development and growth: International evidence and lessons for Cyprus. Cyprus Economic Policy Review, 3 (2), 3–22.
Alaali, N., Al Marzouqi, A., Albaqaeen, A., Dahabreh, F., Alshurideh, M., Alrwashdh, S., Iyadeh, I., Salloum, S., & Aburayya, A. (2021). The impact of adopting corporate governance strategic performance in the tourism sector: A case study in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory, 24 (Special Issue 1), 1–18.
Alananzeh, O. (2017). The impact of safety issues and hygiene perceptions on customer satisfaction: A case study of four and five star hotels in Aqaba, Jordan. Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 6 (1), 1–7.
Alananzeh, O., Maaiah, B., Al-Badarneh, M., & Al-Mkhadmeh, A. (2018a). The effect of hotel attributes on length of stay and hotel choices in coastal cities: Aqaba as a case study. Dirasat, Human and Social Sciences, 45 (4), 275–289.
Alananzeh, O., Jawabreh, O., Al Mahmoud, A., & Hamada, R. (2018b). The impact of customer relationship management on tourist satisfaction: the case of Radisson blue resort in Aqaba city. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 9 (2), 227–240. https://doi.org/10.14505/jemt.v9.2(26).02
Al-Dhoun, R. M. (2019). The effect of security and political events on incoming package tourism to Jordan for the period (1989–2014). Dirrasat, Humanities and Social Sciences, 46 (1).
Al-Dmour, R. H., Masa’deh, R., & Obeidat, B. Y. (2017). Factors influencing the adoption and implementation of HRIS applications: Are they similar? International Journal of Business Innovation and Research, 14 (2), 139–167. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJBIR.2017.086276
Al-Dmour, R., AlShaar, F., Al-Dmour, H., Masa’deh, R., & Alshurideh, M. T. (2021). The effect of service recovery justices strategies on online customer engagement via the role of “customer satisfaction” during the covid-19 pandemic: An empirical study. The Effect of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) on Business Intelligence, 334 , 325–346.
Alrowwad, A., Abualoush, S. H., & Masa’deh, R. (2020). Innovation and intellectual capital as intermediary variables among transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and organizational performance. Journal of Management Development, 39 (2), 196–222. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-02-2019-0062
Alsarayreh, M. N., Jawabreh, O. A., & Helalat, M. S. (2010). The influence of terrorism on the international tourism activities. European Journal of Social Sciences, 13 (1), 145–160.
Al-Shorman, A., Rawashdih, A., Makhadmih, A., Oudat, A., & Darabsih, F. (2016). Middle Eastern political instability and Jordan’s tourism. Journal of Tourism Research and Hospitality, 5 (1). https://doi.org/10.4172/2324-8807.1000155
Alshraideh, A. T. R., Al-Lozi, M., & Alshurideh, M. T. (2017). The impact of training strategy on organizational loyalty via the mediating variables of organizational satisfaction and organizational performance: An empirical study on Jordanian agricultural credit corporation staff. Journal of Social Sciences (COESandRJ-JSS), 6 (2), 383–394.
Alzoubi, H., Alshurideh, M., Kurdi, B., Akour, I., & Aziz, R. (2022). Does BLE technology contribute towards improving marketing strategies, customers’ satisfaction and loyalty? The role of open innovation. International Journal of Data and Network Science, 6 (2), 449–460.
Alzoubi, H. M., Alshurideh, M., Al Kurdi, B., & Inairat, M. (2020). Do perceived service value, quality, price fairness and service recovery shape customer satisfaction and delight? A practical study in the service telecommunication context. Uncertain Supply Chain Management, 8 (3), 579–588.
Aqqad, N., Obeidat, B., & Tarhini, A. (2019). The relationship among emotional intelligence, conflict management styles, and job performance in Jordanian banks. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, 19 (3), 225–265. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJHRDM.2019.100636
Bader, M., Alrousan, R., Abuamoud, I., & Alasal, H. A. (2016). Urban tourism in Jordan: Challenges and opportunities case study: Amman. British Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, 12 (4), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJEMT/2016/24589
Breier, M., Kallmuenzer, A., Clauss, T., Gast, J., Kraus, S., & Tiberius, V. (2021). The role of business model innovation in the hospitality industry during the COVID-19 crisis. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 92 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102723
Central Bank of Jordan. (2021). https://www.cbj.gov.jo/
Chiu, L. K., Ting, C. S., Alananzeh, O., & Hua, K. P. (2019). Perceptions of risk and outbound tourism and travel intentions among young working Malaysians. Dirasat, Human and Social Sciences, 46 (1), 365–379.
Hendrickson, C., & Rilett, L. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic and transportation engineering. Journal of Transportation Engineering, Part A: Systems, 146 , 01820001. https://doi.org/10.1061/JTEPBS.0000418
Hunaiti, Z., Masa’deh, R. M., Mansour, M., & Al-Nawafleh, A. (2009). Electronic commerce adoption barriers in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries: The case of Libya . Paper presented at the Innovation and Knowledge Management in Twin Track Economies Challenges and Solutions—Proceedings of the 11th International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2009, (Vol. 1–3, pp. 1375–1383).
Jiang, Y., Ritchie, B. W., & Eichendorff, P. (2017). Bibliometric visualization: An application in tourism crisis and disaster management research. Current Issues in Tourism . https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2017.1408574
Jiang, Y., Ritchie, B., & Verreynne, M. (2019). Building tourism organizational resilience to crises and disasters: A dynamic capabilities view. International Journal of Tourism Research, 21 . https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2312
Jurdana, D. S. (2018). Strategic planning of tourist development towards sustainability. Series a, Social Sciences and Humanities, 23 , 239–248. https://doi.org/10.20544/HORIZONS.A.23.2.18.P17
Khan, N., Hassan, U. A., Fahad, S., & Naushad, M. (2020). Factors affecting tourism industry and its impacts on global economy of the world. SSRN Electronic Journal . https://ssrn.com/abstract=3559353
Kreishan, F. (2014). The economics of tourism in Jordan: A statistical study during the period 1990–2011. Arab Economic and Business Journal, 9 , 37–45.
Mahmoud, R., Al-Mkhadmeh, A., Alananzeh, O. A., & Masa’deh, R. (2021). Exploring the relationship between human resource management practices in the hospitality sector and services innovation in Jordan: The mediating role of Human Capital. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 35 (2), 507–514. https://doi.org/10.30892/gtg.35231-678
Manzoor, F., Wei, L., Asif, M., Haq, M. Z., & Rehman, H. (2019). The contribution of sustainable tourism to economic growth and employment in Pakistan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16 (19), 3785.
Masa’deh, R., Alananzeh, O., Algiatheen, N., Ryati, R., Albayyari, R., & Tarhini, A. (2017a). The impact of employee’s perception of implementing green supply chain management on hotel’s economic and operational performance. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 8 (3), 395–416. https://doi.org/10.1108/JHTT-02-2017-0011
Masa’deh, R., Alananzeh, O., Tarhini, A., & Algudah, O. (2017b). The effect of promotional mix on hotel performance during the political crisis in the Middle East. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 9 (1), 32–47. https://doi.org/10.1108/JHTT-02-2017-0010
Masa’deh, R., Shannak, R. O., & Maqableh, M. (2013). A structural equation modeling approach for determining antecedents and outcomes of students’ attitude toward mobile commerce adoption. Life Science Journal, 10 (4), 2321–2333.
Masa’deh, R., Alananzeh, O., Jawabreh, O., Alhalabi, R., Syam, H., & Keswani, F. (2019). The association among employees’ communication skills, image formation and tourist behaviour: Perceptions of hospitality management students in Jordan. International Journal of Culture, Tourism, and Hospitality Research, 13 (3), 257–272. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCTHR-02-2018-0028
Masadeh, R., Almajali, D. A., Alrowwad, A., & Obeidat, B. (2019). The role of knowledge management infrastructure in enhancing job satisfaction: A developing country perspective. Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management, 14 , 1–25. https://doi.org/10.28945/4169
Mashaqi, E., Al-Hajri, S., Alshurideh, M., & Al Kurdi, B. (2020). The impact of E-Service quality, E-Recovery services on E-Loyalty in online shopping: Theoretical foundation and qualitative proof. PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, 17 (10), 2291–2316.
Mihalic, T. (2014). Tourism and economic development issues. In R. Sharpley & D. Telfer, J. (Eds.), Tourism and development. Concepts and issues (2nd ed., pp. 77–117). Channel.
Mok, C., Sparks, B., & Kadampully, J. (2013). Service quality management in hospitality, tourism, and leisure (1st ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203047965
National Ocean Service. (2021). How frequent are tides? https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/tidefrequency.html
Obeidat, B. Y., Al-Hadidi, A., & Tarhini, A. (2017). Factors affecting strategy implementation: A case study of pharmaceutical companies in the Middle East. Review of International Business and Strategy, 27 (3), 386–408. https://doi.org/10.1108/RIBS-10-2016-0065
Obeidat, Z. M., Alshurideh, M. T., & Al Dweeri, R. (2019). The influence of online revenge acts on consumers psychological and emotional states: Does revenge taste sweet ? Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 33rd International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2019: Education Excellence and Innovation Management through Vision 2020 (pp. 4797–4815).
Perles-Ribes, J. F., Ramón-Rodríguez, A. B., Sevilla-Jiménez, M., & Rubia, A. (2016). The effects of economic crises on tourism success: An integrated model. Tourism Economics, 22 (2), 417–447.
Rossi, C. (2012). Tourism security and destination crisis management. Competition and innovation in tourism: New challenges in an uncertain world (A. Morvillo, Ed.). Enzo Albano Editore.
de Sausmarez, N. (2007). Crisis management, tourism and sustainability: The role of indicators. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15 . https://doi.org/10.2167/jost653.0
Sönmez, S. F., Apostolopoulos, Y., & Tarlow, P. (1999). Tourism in crisis: Managing the effects of terrorism. Journal of Travel Research, 38 (1), 13–18.
Tarhini, A., Mgbemena, C., & Trab, M. S. A. (2015). User adoption of online banking in Nigeria: a qualitative study. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 20 (3). https://doi.org/10.4172/1204-5357.1000132
The World Bank. (2021). International tourism, number of arrivals—Jordan . Retrieved 2021, from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ST.INT.ARVL?locations=JO
Uysal, D., & Kılıç, L. (2020). How well do Turkey-based travel agencies manage the Covid-19 pandemic crisis? Tourism Academic Journal, 02 , 339–354.
Authors and affiliations.
Department of Hotel Management, Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
Omar A. Alananzeh
Department of Management Information Systems, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
Department of Travel and Tourism, Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
Ibrahim K. Bazazo
You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar
Correspondence to Omar A. Alananzeh .
Editors and affiliations.
Dept of Mngmnt, Cllg of Busness Admin, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan
Barween Hikmat Al Kurdi
Management Information Systems Department, School of Business, University of Jordan, Aqaba, Jordan
Skyline University College, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Haitham M. Alzoubi
Research Institute of Sciences and Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Rights and permissions
Reprints and Permissions
© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG
About this chapter
Cite this chapter.
Alananzeh, O.A., Masa’deh, R., Bazazo, I.K. (2023). Ebb and Flow Theory in Tourism, Hospitality, and Event Management. In: Alshurideh, M., Al Kurdi , B.H., Masa’deh, R., Alzoubi , H.M., Salloum, S. (eds) The Effect of Information Technology on Business and Marketing Intelligence Systems. Studies in Computational Intelligence, vol 1056. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-12382-5_130
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-12382-5_130
Published : 09 February 2023
Publisher Name : Springer, Cham
Print ISBN : 978-3-031-12381-8
Online ISBN : 978-3-031-12382-5
eBook Packages : Engineering Engineering (R0)
Share this chapter
Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:
Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.
Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative
- Find a journal
- Publish with us
A system consists of several parts that are interconnected and interrelated, each part influencing each other through its dynamic nature while responding to the external influences as well. All the components within the system work to attain a common goal or purpose.
An influence in one part of the system will be felt throughout the system. It can be also referred to a spider’s web. Ludwig von Bertalanffy, a biologist has defined ‘ General system theory’ as a set of elements that experience interrelationship among themselves and with their external environments.
A system is an assemblage or interrelated combination of things or elements or components forming a unitary whole (Hall 2008). Tourism can be referred to as a system as it reacts to the external environments like the social, political, technological and ecological. Elements like attraction, transport, accommodation, facilities interact with each other while it interacts with the external environment too.
Concept of Tourism as a System
Tourism is conceptualized as a system by many scholars. It was in the 1970s that the General Systems Theory was applied to the concept of tourism and it has resulted in a number of system theories of tourism. Scholars like Leiper, Getz, Gunn and Mill and Morrison have suggested systems model for tourism. In his book, tourism planning
(1979), Gunn put forth the “tourism fundamental system” that involved five components: tourist, transportation, attractions, services-facilities, and information-direction. Leiper (1979) developed the whole tourism systems based on the systems theory and identified five basic components: tourists, generating regions, transit routes, destination regions, and a tourist industry operating within physical, cultural, social, economic, political, and technological environments. He conceptualized tourism as an open system.
Neil Leiper’s Whole Tourism System Model
Neil Leiper devised a Whole Tourism System Model in the year 1979 and the same was restructured in the year 1990. It is completely based on the Systems Approach consisting of three major components or elements. The following are the four components embedded in the Leiper’s model.
Pic credit- https://www.slideshare.net/Poddar25/got-3-module-1
I. The Human Component:
II. The Geographical Component:
• The Generating Region
• Transit Route Region
• The Destination Region
III. The Industrial Component
Iv. the environmental component.
Leiper proposed six aspects within the model which are interrelated, interdependent and interact with each other and function as a group while responding to the external influences. Thus it is an open system where influences are found within the system as well as external to the system.
The human component consists of the tourists, the geographical component consists of traveler-generating regions, transit route regions and tourist-destination regions, the industrial component involving the various business and organizations that provide services and finally, the environmental component comprising of the social, technological, legal and ecological aspects.
All these aspects weave together as a whole tourism system in a structural manner. Figure-1 provides the pictorial representation of the Leiper’s model of the components of the tourism system.
1. The Human Component
The human component specified in the model is the tourists who undertake tourism to a destination of their interests. A tourist is a person who traverses away from his place of residence to another place for a short span of stay with an aim to spend his holidays.
A person can be called as a tourist if he stays for at least 24 hours and not more than one year in a destination either within the country or outside the country of residence not involving in any remunerative activity. Tourism, according to the Oxford dictionary, is “the theory and practice of touring or travelling for pleasure”.
Tourists undertake different forms of tourism as per their need like recreation, pleasure, business, education, health, pilgrimage, culture and they are called as recreational tourists, pleasure tourists, business tourists, education tourists, health tourists, pilgrimage tourists and cultural tourists in that order.
It is based on the motivational push that tourists undertake their trip to a particular destination. It all happens with the available forms of tourism. Therefore, it completely depends on the purposes of travel.
As per the definition of UNWTO’s (United Nations World Tourism Organization), “tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes”. It is clear from the definition that tourists are temporary residents of the destination of visit.
After touring, they return to their original place of residence or their place of departure. According to Leiper (1979), the fundamentals of tourism are traced back to Greek origins, likened to a circle, reflecting a key component of tourism and returning to the point of departure.
2. The Geographic Component.
The geographic component refers to the geographical area involved in the tourism process. Tourists depart from a geographical area – the place of origin, utilize a geographical route and reach a geographical area – the place of arrival or destination of visit.
Similarly, they reach their area of origin after completion of the trip taking a complete cycle of the geographical components. Thus, there are three geographical areas involved in the conduct of tourism.
The geographic components comprise of the following three aspects:
1. Tourist Generating Region(TGR)
2. Travel Route Region(TRR) and
3. Tourist Destination Region(TDR)
2.1 Tourism Generating Regions (TGR).
Tourism Generating Region refers to the place where the tourist starts and ends his tour. It is the location of permanent residence from where he departs for tour and reaches after completion of trip. It is also referred to the source region of journey as well as the geographical area of demand. According to Dann (1977), it is the geographical setting pertaining to the motivational and behavioral pattern termed as “Push” factors.
‘Push’ factors are the intangible wishes or desires arising in the minds of a person. These are influenced by the social, psychological, and economic forces generated from within the person.
The aspects like mundane environment, exploration, self-evaluation, relaxation, prestige, family relations, and social interaction are found within the minds of the people of the tourist-generating region. These pertain to the psychological push factors. Influence of family, reference groups, social classes, culture, and sub-cultures are the factors pertaining to the social push factors.
The demographic aspects like age, sex, educational qualification, income and marital status also contribute to the push factors. The economic push factors are the disposable income added with the available leisure time joint together that play vital role in the tourist-generating region.
Apart from the above mentioned factors in the tourist generating region, the aspects like ticketing services, tour operators, travel agents and marketing and promotional activities present in the departure area play a major role as push components.
2.2. Transit Route Region (TRR).
Transit route refers to the path throughout the region across which the tourist travels to reach his or her destination. It is the path that links the tourist generating regions and the tourist destination regions, along which the tourists travel.
When the tourists undertake a long haul, travel it is necessary to take a temporary stoppage called a transit route. The transit route includes stopover points, which might be used for convenience of the tourist or due to the presence of various attractions throughout the travel route that can be visited by the tourists.
The transit route enables the tourists to change flight or stop for some time for refueling. The transit route might differ from the start of the travel from the generating region and ending of the travel from the destination region.
The transit route may be crossed with the different types of transportation like air transport or rail transport or water transport or road transport or a combination of all these types of transports according to the necessity of the tourist. Thus, the transit rout region is a vital component in the tourism system.
2.3 Tourist Destination Region (TDR).
Tourist Destination Region refers to the destination, which the tourists prefer to visit during their travel. It is the location, which attracts tourists for their temporary stay. The destination region is the core component of tourism, as it is the region, which the tourist chooses to visit, and which the core element of tourism is based on. It is the supply side of the tourism products that pull the tourists.
This component includes the natural attractions, cultural attraction, and various entertainment factors, accommodation, facilities, services, amenities, safety and security available in the destination of visit that ultimately pull the tourists. The new age tourists mostly demand now-a-days special interest tourism products available in the destination region.
The qualitative aspects that are absent or lacking in the tourist-generating region and available in the tourist destination region form as the basic attractions that pull the tourists towards TDR. The location has the attributes as anticipated by the tourists that retains loyal tourists from the generating regions
3. The Industrial Component..
The next important component in the Lieper’s model is the industry. Industrial component refers to the businesses and organizations that promote tourism related products. These firms thrive to cater to the needs and wants of the tourists.They impart full-fledged products and services to the tourists through attractions, accommodation, accessibility and amenities.
It is a composition of many small firms that provide tourist attractions and services to the tourists in an affordable manner. Tourism industry is not an individual entity and all the industrial components of the tourism industry function together as an amalgam as tourism cannot function in the absence of even a single aspect of the industrial component. Tourism industry is a mixture of many industries. They are:
• Tourist Services Industry
• Accommodation Industry
• Transport Industry
• Entertainment Industry
• Tourist Attraction Industry
• Shopping Industry
These industries are located in different places some in the tourist generating region and some in the destination region. The travel agents and tour operators are located in the tourist generating region who help in the arrangement of travel for the tourists.
They do marketing activities motivating the tourists to visit specific destination regions while designing tailor made tourism products. The travel agents and tour operators in the destination region are facilitators of the tourists. Thus, they form to be the tourist services industry.
The accommodation industry, the sub-component comprises of hotels, motels, resorts, guest- houses and home stays that provide temporary residential facility for the tourists. There is variety of options in the accommodation sector affordable to the different category of tourists. The transport industry consists of four forms of transport like air, rail, sea and road transport.
A number of carriers are there in the transport industry transporting the tourists from the tourist-generating region to the tourist destination region through the transit route region. It is one of the most indispensable components as tourism cannot happen without movement of people and transport industry solely takes care of it.
The entertainment industry pertains to the products provided in the destination region by the service providers with a motive to bring enjoyment, pleasure, fun, excitement, amusement and recreation to make the tourists’ leisure time fruitful and lively. Theaters, games, sports, gambling, bars and pubs are some of the products in the entertainment industry available in the destination region
The attraction industry comprises of the tourism experiences based on which tourists ultimately gets high level of satisfaction. Nature, culture, heritage, monuments, climate, beaches, events, sunshine, snow, are some of the attractions which pull the tourists towards the tourist destination region. Attractions are unique to the destinations, as these will not be found in the tourist-generating region.
Shopping Industry is another sub-component, which is unique to the destination region as tourists wish to shop products that are traditional or famous to that particular destination. For example, Kashmir is famous for shawls and Gujarat is famous for saris.
Therefore, tourists wish to buy souvenirs from the destinations and wherever they travel, they desire to go to some of the shopping malls to buy their choice products selected from souvenirs which happen to be ready-made wear, cosmetics / skin-care products, snacks / confectioneries, shoes/ other footwear, handbag /wallets/belts, souvenirs / handicrafts, medicine/ herbs, perfume, personal care and jewelry.
4. The Environmental Component.
The last component in the Leiper’s model of tourism system is the environment component that surrounds the three geographical regions. Tourism is an open system and it interacts with the external environment. Environment is the surrounding circumstances that affect the tourism system and vice versa. These forces either induce positive or negative influences on the tourism system. The environmental components that affect the tourism system are as follows:
1. Political Factors
2. Economic Factors
3. Social/Cultural Factors
4. Technological Factors
5. Environmental Factors
6. Legal Factors
4.1 Political Factors
Political factors influences the tourism system according the available political situation. An unstable political situation will hamstring the tourism development. Tourism system will function effectively if there is political harmony and law and order are executed in a proper manner.
It will further get developed in case the government enforces tourism policy planning, makes more investments in the tourism industry and ensures tax benefits. If there is good relationship existing between the countries of the tourist generating region and tourist destination region tourism will flourish. Otherwise tourism growth will be adversely affected.
4.2 Economic Factors
The economic factors influence the system of tourism as it is directly related to the per capita income of the tourist generating region, their disposable income and standard of living. On the other hand if tourist destination region provides affordable tourism products and services tourism development is likely to go up.
Therefore, the income and expenditure of the tourists will be balanced ensuring tourist flow. Economic factors are also directly related to the general global financial situation. The financial depression that was prevalent in the year 2008 had severely affected the tourism industry as the per capita income decreased all over the world.
4.3 Social/Cultural Factors
Social or cultural factors spell significant influences on the tourism system. Based on the attitude of the local people in the tourism destination region the tourists of the generating region will be pulled towards it. The experience of the tourists depends upon the receptive nature of the hosts of the destination.
If aversion prevails over the behavior of the tourists in the minds of the host people, loyal tourists cannot be pulled by the destination region. The tourists will not prefer to visit a destination which is not tourist friendly.
4.4 Technological Factors
Technology is another important factor that affects the tourism system. Technology has been developing swiftly and it has spread its wings in all the sectors especially in tourism. It has changed the travel behavior of the tourist of the generating region and the organizations of the tourism industry are using technology to market their their services and products of the tourist destination region.
Internet is used by the tourists to gather information about the destinations, the transit routes and the attractions to decide on their travel. They make reservations online instead of approaching the travel agents and tour operators – traditional methods of distribution system. The suppliers of the destination region and the transit route region like the airlines, hotels, and tourism attraction operators make direct contact with the tourists generating region and create great challenge to the intermediaries.
4.5 Environmental Factors
The environmental factors are related to the rich biodiversity existing in the tourist destination region. The more the pressure given to the environmental chasteness more will be the impact on the biodiversity. The ecosystem of the destination region is affected by the tourists of the generating region and the tourism industrial operators.
Negative impacts like pollution, loss of greeneries, congestion, over utilization creates the imperatives for making tourism sustainable for the future. Therefore, such negative impacts have to be eliminated or reduced by the government creating awareness about sustainability of tourism resources in the minds of the stakeholders otherwise severe loss will be exerted on the tourism system.
4.6 Legal Factors
The legal factors refer to the prevalent law and order in the tourist generating region, transit route region and the tourist destination region. These laws act as a framework to protect the tourists and the organizations of the tourism industry. It leads to the proper development and management of tourism and the components of the tourism system. There are laws pertaining to tourism infrastructure, conservation of natural rich biodiversity and the cultural resources.
You Might Also Like
Class of Tickets in Airlines
This post has 6 comments.
Pingback: ¥¹©`¥Ñ©`¥³¥Ô©` ¥°¥Ã¥Á ¥©`¥±©`¥¹
Pingback: My Site
Pingback: Adventure Quest Worlds
Pingback: ¥¹©`¥Ñ©`¥³¥Ô©` ¿Ú¥³¥ß 620
Pingback: ¥·¥ã¥Í¥ë ¥¢¥¯¥»¥µ¥ê©` ¥¹©`¥Ñ©`¥³¥Ô©`
Comments are closed.
What is international tourism and why is it important?
Liked this article? Click to share!
The International tourism industry is stronger than ever before. Destinations around the world have developed their economies around international tourism and they are thriving (minus the ongoing Coronavirus pandemic, but I am confident that tourism will return so I am going to put that to one side for now). But what does it all mean?
In this article I am going to introduce you to the exciting world of international tourism- the industry that I have lived and breathed for so many years. The industry that I love. So here goes…
What is international tourism?
International tourism definitions, foreign exchange earnings, contribution to government revenues, employment generation, contribution to local economies, overall economy boost, preserving local culture, strengthening communities, provision of social services, commercialisation of culture and art, revitalisation of culture and art, preservation of heritage, empowering communities, protecting nature, international tourism statistics, international tourism: conclusion, further reading.
Tourism is the generic term used to cover both demand and supply that has been adopted in a variety of forms and used throughout the world.
International tourism essentially refers to the activities undertaken by visitors, also known as the visitor economy. The tourism industry encompasses all activity that takes place within the visitor economy.
This includes activities that are directly related to the tourist, such as staying in a hotel, ordering a meal or visiting a tourist attraction. It also includes indirect activities, such as the transport company which delivers the food to the restaurant in which the tourist eats or the laundry company that has a contract with the hotel for cleaning bed sheets.
It is largely due to the indirect contributions to tourism, that defining and measuring the tourism industry is so difficult!
Tourism is a phenomenon with no universally accepted definition, owing to the complexity and individualism of the travellers themselves and the activities that they choose to undertake.
The most widely utilised definition of tourism, proposed by the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and United States (UN) Nations Statistics Division (1994), prescribes that in order to qualify as a tourist one must travel and remain in a place outside of their usual residential environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or other purposes.
Matheison and Wall (1982) on the other hand, do not impose a timeframe, simply stating that one must travel to a destination temporarily.
Leiper (1979) believed that defining tourism is more complex than this, proposing that there are three approaches that can be taken. The economic stance focuses on tourism as a business, the technical stance focusses on the tourist in order to provide a common basis by which to collect data and the holistic stance attempts to include the entire essence of the subject.
The Cambridge Dictionary define tourism quite simply as; ‘the business of providing services such as transport, places to stay or entertainment for people who are on holiday’.
As there is no universal definition for the term ‘international tourism’, for the purposes of this article I will define it as follows:
‘International tourism is the act of travelling to another country other than where you live for no more than one year for purposes of leisure or business’.
Why is international tourism important?
International tourism is hugely important. There are a number of key reasons for this that I will outline below.
Value to the economy
International tourism can help economies to bring in money in a number of different ways. Below I have provided some examples of the positive economic impacts of tourism .
The importance of international tourism is demonstrated through foreign exchange earnings.
Tourism expenditures generate income to the host economy. The money that the country makes from tourism can then be reinvested in the economy.
How a destination manages their finances differs around the world; some destinations may spend this money on growing their tourism industry further, some may spend this money on public services such as education or healthcare and some destinations suffer extreme corruption so nobody really knows where the money ends up!
Some currencies are worth more than others and so some countries will target tourists from particular areas. Currencies that are strong are generally the most desirable currencies. This typically includes the British Pound, American, Australian and Singapore Dollar and the Euro .
Tourism is one of the top five export categories for as many as 83% of countries and is a main source of foreign exchange earnings for at least 38% of countries.
The importance of international tourism is also demonstrated through the money that is raised and contributed to government revenues. Tourism can help to raise money that it then invested elsewhere by the Government. There are two main ways that this money is accumulated.
Direct contributions are generated by taxes on incomes from tourism employment and tourism businesses and things such as departure taxes.
According to the World Tourism Organisation, the direct contribution of Travel & Tourism to GDP in 2018 was $2,750.7billion (3.2% of GDP). This is forecast to rise by 3.6% to $2,849.2billion in 2019.
Indirect contributions come from goods and services supplied to tourists which are not directly related to the tourism industry.
There is also the income that is generated through induced contributions . This accounts for money spent by the people who are employed in the tourism industry. This might include costs for housing, food, clothing and leisure Activities amongst others. This will all contribute to an increase in economic activity in the area where tourism is being developed.
The importance of international tourism can be demonstrated through employment generation.
The rapid expansion of international tourism has led to significant employment creation. From hotel managers to theme park operatives to cleaners, tourism creates many employment opportunities. Tourism supports some 7% of the world’s workers.
There are two types of employment in the tourism industry: direct and indirect.
Direct employment includes jobs that are immediately associated with the tourism industry. This might include hotel staff, restaurant staff or taxi drivers, to name a few.
Indirect employment includes jobs which are not technically based in the tourism industry, but are related to the tourism industry.
It is because of these indirect relationships, that it is very difficult to accurately measure the precise economic value of tourism, and some suggest that the actual economic benefits of tourism may be as high as double that of the recorded figures!
The importance of international tourism can be further seen through the contributions to local economies.
All of the money raised, whether through formal or informal means, has the potential to contribute to the local economy.
If sustainable tourism is demonstrated, money will be directed to areas that will benefit the local community most. There may be pro-poor tourism initiatives (tourism which is intended to help the poor) or volunteer tourism projects. The government may reinvest money towards public services and money earned by tourism employees will be spent in the local community. This is known as the multiplier effect.
International tourism boosts the economy exponentially.
This is partly because of the aforementioned jobs that tourism creates, but also because of the temporary addition to the consumer population that occurs when someone travels to a new place.
Just think: when you travel, you’re spending money. You’re paying to stay in a hotel or hostel in a certain area – then you’re eating in local restaurants, using local public transport, buying souvenirs and ice cream and new flip flops. As a tourist, you are contributing to the global economy every time you book and take a trip.
For some towns, cities and even whole countries, the importance of international tourism is greater than for others. In some cases, it is the main source of income.
For example, according to the World Travel and Tourism Council, tourism accounts for almost 40% of the Maldives’ total GDP. In comparison, it’s less than 4% in the UK and even lower in the US! In the Seychelles the number is just over 26% while in the British Virgin Islands it is over 35% – so tourism is vastly important in these nations.
Other posts that you might be interested in: – What is tourism? A definition of tourism – The history of tourism – The structure of the tourism industry – Stakeholders in tourism – Inbound tourism explained: What, why and where – What is ABTA and how does it work? – Outbound tourism | Understanding the basics
Value to society
The importance of international tourism is not only recognised through economic factors, but there are also many positive social impacts of tourism that play an important part. Below I will outline some of the social gains from tourism.
It is the local culture that the tourists are often coming to visit and this is another way to demonstrate the importance of international tourism.
Tourists visit Beijing to learn more about the Chinese Dynasties. Tourists visit Thailand to taste authentic Thai food. Tourists travel to Brazil to go to the Rio Carnival, to mention a few…
Many destinations will make a conserved effort to preserve and protect the local culture. This often contributes to the conservation and sustainable management of natural resources, the protection of local heritage, and a renaissance of indigenous cultures, cultural arts and crafts.
The importance of international tourism can also be demonstrated through the strengthening of communities.
Events and festivals of which local residents have been the primary participants and spectators are often rejuvenated and developed in response to tourist interest.
The jobs created by international tourism can also be a great boost for the local community. Aside from the economic impacts created by enhanced employment prospects, people with jobs are happier and more social than those without a disposable income.
Local people can also increase their influence on tourism development, as well as improve their job and earnings prospects, through tourism-related professional training and development of business and organisational skills.
The importance of international tourism is shown through the provision of social services in the host community.
The international tourism industry requires many facilities/ infrastructure to meet the needs of the tourist. This often means that many developments in an area as a result of tourism will be available for use by the locals also.
Local people often gained new roads, new sewage systems, new playgrounds, bus services etc as a result of tourism. This can provide a great boost to their quality of life and is a great example of a positive social impact of tourism.
International tourism can see rise to many commercial business, which can be a positive social impact of tourism. This helps to enhance the community spirit as people tend to have more disposable income as a result.
These businesses may also promote the local cultures and arts. Museums, shows and galleries are fantastic way to showcase the local customs and traditions of a destination. This can help to promote/ preserve local traditions.
Some destinations will encourage local cultures and arts to be revitalised. This may be in the form of museum exhibitions, in the way that restaurants and shops are decorated and in the entertainment on offer, for example.
This may help promote traditions that may have become distant.
Another reason for the importance of international tourism is the preservation of heritage. Many tourists will visit the destination especially to see its local heritage. It is for this reason that many destinations will make every effort to preserve its heritage.
This could include putting restrictions in place or limiting tourist numbers, if necessary. This is often an example of careful tourism planning and sustainable tourism management.
International tourism can, if managed well, empower communities. While it is important to consider the authenticity in tourism and take some things with a pinch of salt, know that tourism can empower communities.
Small villages in far off lands are able to profit from selling their handmade goods. This, in turn, puts food on the table. This leads to healthier families and more productivity and a happier population .
Value to the environment
Whilst most media coverage involving international tourism and the environment tends to be negative, there are some positives that can come from it: demonstrating the importance of tourism once again.
Some people think that international tourism is what kills nature. And while this could so easily be true, it is important to note that the tourism industry is and always has been a big voice when it comes to conservation and the protection of animals and nature. Tourism organisations and travel operators often run (and donate to) fundraisers.
As well as this, visitors to certain areas can take part in activities that aim to sustain the local scenery. It’s something a bit different, too! You and your family can go on a beach clean up walk in Spain or do something similar in the UAE . There are a lot of ways in which tourism actually helps the environment, rather than hindering it!
Tourism brings with it huge economic potential for a destination that wishes to develop their tourism industry. Employment, currency exchange, imports and taxes are just a few of the ways that tourism can bring money into a destination.
In recent years, tourism numbers have increased globally at exponential rates, as shown in the World Tourism Organisation data below. There are a number of reasons for this growth including improvements in technology, increases in disposable income, the growth of budget airlines and consumer desires to travel further, to new destinations and more often.
Here are a few statistics providing by the UN and Statistica:
Here are a few facts about the economic importance of the tourism industry globally:
- The tourism economy represents 5 percent of world GDP
- Tourism contributes to 6-7 percent of total employment
- International tourism ranks fourth (after fuels, chemicals and automotive products) in global exports
- The tourism industry is valued at US$1trillion a year
- Tourism accounts for 30 percent of the world’s exports of commercial services
- Tourism accounts for 6 percent of total exports
- 1.4billion international tourists were recorded in 2018 (UNWTO)
- In over 150 countries, tourism is one of five top export earners
- Tourism is the main source of foreign exchange for one-third of developing countries and one-half of less economically developed countries (LEDCs)
There is a wealth of data about the economic value of tourism worldwide, with lots of handy graphs and charts in the United Nations Economic Impact Report .
International tourism is arguably the largest industry in the world. There are many benefits of international tourism to local economies as well as society and the environment. The many components of tourism that make up the industry are integral to livelihoods the world over.
- An Introduction to Tourism : a comprehensive and authoritative introduction to all facets of tourism including: the history of tourism; factors influencing the tourism industry; tourism in developing countries; sustainable tourism; forecasting future trends.
- The Business of Tourism Management : an introduction to key aspects of tourism, and to the practice of managing a tourism business.
- Tourism Management: An Introduction : gives its reader a strong understanding of the dimensions of tourism, the industries of which it is comprised, the issues that affect its success, and the management of its impact on destination economies, environments and communities.
- Get IGI Global News
- Language: English
- All Products
- Book Chapters
- Journal Articles
- Video Lessons
- Teaching Cases
Shortly You Will Be Redirected to Our Partner eContent Pro's Website
eContent Pro powers all IGI Global Author Services. From this website, you will be able to receive your 35% discount (automatically applied at checkout), receive a free quote, place an order, and retrieve your final documents .
What is Tourist Flows
Related Books View All Books
Related Journals View All Journals
Who’s a tourist? How a culture of travel is changing everyday life
Professor of Sustainable Tourism and Director Griffith Institute for Tourism, Griffith University
Susanne Becken does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.
Griffith University provides funding as a member of The Conversation AU.
View all partners
Every year, on September 27, the global tourism community celebrates World Tourism Day . This year’s theme is about community development and how tourism can contribute to empowering people and improve socio-economic conditions in local communities.
But who are the people who might visit “communities” and what does it mean – these days – to be a tourist?
There are many tourist stereotypes – an overweight Westerner in shorts with a camera dangling around their neck, or maybe a trekking-shoed backpacker hanging out in the Himalayas. Many people think of “tourism” and “holidays” as distinct times of the year when the family travels to the seaside or the mountains.
World Tourism Day is an opportunity to discuss how much more encompassing the phenomenon of tourism is than most people might think.
What is a tourist?
People are more often a “tourist” than they realise. The United Nations World Tourism Organisation broadly defines a tourist as anyone travelling away from home for more than one night and less than one year. So, mobility is at the core of tourism.
In Australia, for example, in 2013 75.8 million people travelled domestically for an overnight trip – spending 283 million visitor nights and $51.5 billion.
Reasons for travel are manifold and not restricted to holidays, which makes up only 47% of all domestic trips in Australia. Other reasons include participation in sport events, visiting a friend or relative, or business meetings.
Some of the most-visited destinations in the world are not related to leisure but to other purposes. For example, pilgramage tourism to Mecca (Saudi Arabia) triples the population from its normal 2 million during the Hajj period every year.
Travel, work and leisure: what’s the difference?
Tourists are not what they used to be. One of the most pervasive changes in the structure of modern life is the crumbling divide between the spheres of work and life. This is no more obvious than in relation to travel. Let me test the readers of The Conversation: who is checking their work emails while on holiday?
A recent survey undertaken in the US showed that 44.8% of respondents check their work email at least once a day outside work hours. Further, 29.8% of respondents use their work email for personal purposes.
Post-modern thinkers have long pointed to processes where work becomes leisure and leisure cannot be separated from work anymore. Ever-increasing mobility means the tourist and the non-tourist become more and more alike.
The classic work-leisure divide becomes particularly fluid for those who frequently engage in travel, for example to attend business meetings or conferences. Conferences are often held at interesting locations, inviting longer stays and recreational activities not only for participants but also for spouses and family.
Further, city business hotels increasingly resemble tourist resorts: both have extensive recreational facilities such as swimming pools and spas, multiple restaurants and often shopping opportunities (e.g. Marina Bay Sands, Singapore ). And, of course, they offer internet access – to be connected to both work and private “business”.
Understanding how people negotiate this liquidity while travelling provides interesting insights into much broader societal changes in terms of how people organise their lives.
For some entrepreneurial destinations these trends have provided an opportunity; namely the designation of so-called dead zones – areas where no mobile phone and no internet access are available. Here the tourist can fully immerse in the real locality of their stay.
Fear of missing out
The perceived need to connect virtually to “friends” (e.g. on Facebook) and colleagues has attracted substantial psychological research interest, with new terms being coined such as FOMO (fear of missing out) addiction, or internet addiction disorder.
A recent Facebook survey found that this social media outlet owes much of its popularity to travel – 42% of stories shared related to travel. The motivations for engaging in extensive social media use and implications for tourism marketing are an active area of tourism research.
Thus, understanding why and what people share while travelling (i.e. away from loved ones, but possibly earning important “social status” points) might provide important insights into wider questions of social networks and identity formation, especially among younger people.
Tourism and emigration
The increasingly global nature of networks has been discussed in detail by sociologist John Urry and others. They note the growing interconnectedness between tourism and migration, where families are spread over the globe and (cheap) air travel enables social networks to connect regularly.
As a result, for many people local communities have given way to global communities, with important implications for people’s “sense of place” and resilience. The global nature of personal networks extends to business relationships where the degree to which one is globally connected determines one’s “network capital”.
Urry also noted that mobility has become a differentiation factor between the “haves” and “have nots”, with a small elite of hypermobile “connectors”. Thus travel and tourism sit at the core of a potentially new structure of leaders and influential decision makers.
The global ‘share economy’
Engaging in this global community of tourists is not restricted to those who travel actively. The so-called Share Economy , where people rent out their private homes (e.g. AirBnB), share taxi rides or dinners, has brought tourism right into the living rooms of those who wish to engage with people who they may not meet otherwise.
Potentially this parallel “tourism industry” provides a unique opportunity for bringing people together and achieving peace through tourism (see International Institute for Peace through Tourism ). A whole new area for research travellers, “guests and hosts” and their economic impacts, is emerging.
In a nutshell, tourism is much more than the service industry it is usually recognised for, both in practice and as a field of academic enquiry. Tourism and the evolving nature of travellers provide important insights into societal changes, challenges and opportunities. Engaging with tourism and travel also provides us with an excellent opportunity to better understand trends that might foster or impede sustainable development more broadly.
Director, Cool Soils
Pro Vice-Chancellor, Indigenous
RMIT Vice-Chancellor's Research Fellowships
- Travel, Tourism & Hospitality ›
Industry-specific and extensively researched technical data (partially from exclusive partnerships). A paid subscription is required for full access.
Sightseeing tourist flow in Moscow 2018-2020
Number of sightseeing tourists in moscow from 2018 to 2020 (in millions).
- Immediate access to 1m+ statistics
- Incl. source references
- Download as PNG, PDF, XLS, PPT
Show sources information Show publisher information Use Ask Statista Research Service
2018 to 2020
The statistic was compiled from several posts on the website.
Other statistics on the topic Travel and tourism in Russia
Travel, Tourism & Hospitality
Countries with the highest outbound tourism expenditure worldwide 2019-2021
Leading outbound travel destinations in Russia 2021-2022
Number of outbound tourists from Russia 2022, by territory
Number of outbound tourism trips from Russia 2014-2022
To download this statistic in XLS format you need a Statista Account
To download this statistic in PNG format you need a Statista Account
To download this statistic in PDF format you need a Statista Account
To download this statistic in PPT format you need a Statista Account
As a Premium user you get access to the detailed source references and background information about this statistic.
As a Premium user you get access to background information and details about the release of this statistic.
As soon as this statistic is updated, you will immediately be notified via e-mail.
… to incorporate the statistic into your presentation at any time.
You need at least a Starter Account to use this feature.
- Immediate access to statistics, forecasts & reports
- Usage and publication rights
- Download in various formats
You only have access to basic statistics. This statistic is not included in your account.
- Instant access to 1m statistics
- Download in XLS, PDF & PNG format
- Detailed references
Business Solutions including all features.
Other statistics that may interest you
- Tourist flow in Moscow 2019-2022
- Tourism industry growth in Russia 2023, by indicator
- Tourist arrivals in Florence 2012-2021
- Monthly number of overnight visitors in the city of Madrid 2019-2022
- Growth rate of online tourist transactions' value in Italy 2015-2020
- Italian and international tourist overnight stays in Florence municipality 2019
- Italy: distribution of tourism market value 2014-2018, by type
- Italy: growth rate of tourism market value in Italy 2015-2018
- Italy: annual value of tourism market 2014-2018
- Italy: distribution of tourism market value 2018, by origin and destination
- Most popular travel destinations in Russia in summer 2020
- Outbound tourist flow growth in Russia 2020-2022
- Inbound tourist flow growth in Russia 2020-2022
- Most popular travel destinations in Russia in winter 2021
- Tourists growth in Russia 2019-2021, by season and destination
- Italy: number of Russian tourists 2008-2015
- Tourism balance over GDP in Russia 2010-2020
- Tourism openness over GDP in Russia 2010-2020
- Number of visitors to the U.S. from Russia 2011-2021
- Coronavirus (COVID-19) impact on Russian tourism in 2020
- Contribution of China's travel and tourism industry to GDP 2014-2023
- Number of international tourist arrivals APAC 2019, by country or region
- Music tourist spending at concerts and festivals in the United Kingdom (UK) 2012-2016
- Importance of BRICS countries to UK tourism businesses 2011
- Live music tourist attendance in the United Kingdom (UK) 2018, by region
- Middle Eastern countries with the largest international tourism receipts 2018
- Extended stay lodging units: total number in the U.S. 2008-2016
- Business class air fares used by corporate clients - growth forecast 2011-2012
- Growth of inbound spending in the U.S. using foreign visa credit cards
- Mexico: share of paid jobs in tourism by service type 2017
- Tourist arrivals in the Italian region of Sicily 2019-2022, by province
- Europeans planning leisure domestic or European trips 2023, by trip type
- Number of visitor arrivals in Hong Kong 2022, by region of origin
- Leading destinations of HanaTour's customers Q3 2022
- Operating income HanaTour 2014-2021
- Value of hotel market in India FY 2018-2027
- Share of tourism GDP Philippines 2012-2022
- Number of visitors to the U.S. from Jamaica 2011-2021
- Inbound tourism volume in Norway 2010-2020
- Inbound tourist arrivals for personal purposes in Albania 2010-2021
- Tourism openness over GDP in Estonia 2010-2021
- Tourism balance over GDP in Latvia 2012-2020
- Tourism openness over GDP in Latvia 2010-2021
- Inbound tourism for personal purposes in Ukraine 2010-2020
- Tourism balance over GDP in Bulgaria 2010-2021
- Inbound tourism in Ukraine 2011-2020, by organization of trip
- Tourism openness over GDP in Bulgaria 2010-2021
- Outbound tourism departures from Latvia 2010-2021
- Tourism balance over GDP in Croatia 2010-2021
Other statistics that may interest you Statistics on
About the industry
- Premium Statistic Tourist flow in Moscow 2019-2022
- Premium Statistic Tourism industry growth in Russia 2023, by indicator
- Premium Statistic Tourist arrivals in Florence 2012-2021
- Premium Statistic Monthly number of overnight visitors in the city of Madrid 2019-2022
- Premium Statistic Growth rate of online tourist transactions' value in Italy 2015-2020
- Premium Statistic Italian and international tourist overnight stays in Florence municipality 2019
- Premium Statistic Italy: distribution of tourism market value 2014-2018, by type
- Premium Statistic Italy: growth rate of tourism market value in Italy 2015-2018
- Premium Statistic Italy: annual value of tourism market 2014-2018
- Premium Statistic Italy: distribution of tourism market value 2018, by origin and destination
About the region
- Premium Statistic Most popular travel destinations in Russia in summer 2020
- Basic Statistic Outbound tourist flow growth in Russia 2020-2022
- Basic Statistic Inbound tourist flow growth in Russia 2020-2022
- Premium Statistic Most popular travel destinations in Russia in winter 2021
- Premium Statistic Tourists growth in Russia 2019-2021, by season and destination
- Premium Statistic Italy: number of Russian tourists 2008-2015
- Premium Statistic Tourism balance over GDP in Russia 2010-2020
- Premium Statistic Tourism openness over GDP in Russia 2010-2020
- Premium Statistic Number of visitors to the U.S. from Russia 2011-2021
- Basic Statistic Coronavirus (COVID-19) impact on Russian tourism in 2020
- Basic Statistic Contribution of China's travel and tourism industry to GDP 2014-2023
- Premium Statistic Number of international tourist arrivals APAC 2019, by country or region
- Premium Statistic Music tourist spending at concerts and festivals in the United Kingdom (UK) 2012-2016
- Basic Statistic Importance of BRICS countries to UK tourism businesses 2011
- Premium Statistic Live music tourist attendance in the United Kingdom (UK) 2018, by region
- Premium Statistic Middle Eastern countries with the largest international tourism receipts 2018
- Premium Statistic Extended stay lodging units: total number in the U.S. 2008-2016
- Premium Statistic Business class air fares used by corporate clients - growth forecast 2011-2012
- Basic Statistic Growth of inbound spending in the U.S. using foreign visa credit cards
- Premium Statistic Mexico: share of paid jobs in tourism by service type 2017
- Premium Statistic Tourist arrivals in the Italian region of Sicily 2019-2022, by province
- Premium Statistic Europeans planning leisure domestic or European trips 2023, by trip type
- Premium Statistic Number of visitor arrivals in Hong Kong 2022, by region of origin
- Premium Statistic Leading destinations of HanaTour's customers Q3 2022
- Premium Statistic Operating income HanaTour 2014-2021
- Premium Statistic Value of hotel market in India FY 2018-2027
- Premium Statistic Share of tourism GDP Philippines 2012-2022
- Basic Statistic Number of visitors to the U.S. from Jamaica 2011-2021
- Premium Statistic Inbound tourism volume in Norway 2010-2020
- Premium Statistic Inbound tourist arrivals for personal purposes in Albania 2010-2021
- Premium Statistic Tourism openness over GDP in Estonia 2010-2021
- Premium Statistic Tourism balance over GDP in Latvia 2012-2020
- Premium Statistic Tourism openness over GDP in Latvia 2010-2021
- Premium Statistic Inbound tourism for personal purposes in Ukraine 2010-2020
- Premium Statistic Tourism balance over GDP in Bulgaria 2010-2021
- Premium Statistic Inbound tourism in Ukraine 2011-2020, by organization of trip
- Premium Statistic Tourism openness over GDP in Bulgaria 2010-2021
- Premium Statistic Outbound tourism departures from Latvia 2010-2021
- Premium Statistic Tourism balance over GDP in Croatia 2010-2021
Further related statistics
- Premium Statistic Passenger traffic at Dubai Airports from 2010 to 2020*
- Premium Statistic Annual revenue of China Tourism Group Duty Free 2012-2022
- Premium Statistic Countries with the highest number of inbound tourist arrivals worldwide 2019-2022
- Premium Statistic Change in number of visitors from Mexico to the U.S. 2018-2024
- Basic Statistic Number of international tourist arrivals in India 2010-2021
- Basic Statistic International tourism receipts of India 2011-2021
- Basic Statistic Number of Marriott International hotels worldwide 2009-2022
- Basic Statistic Foreign exchange earnings from tourism in India 2000-2022
- Premium Statistic National park visitor spending in the U.S. 2012-2021, by category
- Premium Statistic Economic contribution of national park visitor spending in the U.S. 2012-2021
Further Content: You might find this interesting as well
- Passenger traffic at Dubai Airports from 2010 to 2020*
- Annual revenue of China Tourism Group Duty Free 2012-2022
- Countries with the highest number of inbound tourist arrivals worldwide 2019-2022
- Change in number of visitors from Mexico to the U.S. 2018-2024
- Number of international tourist arrivals in India 2010-2021
- International tourism receipts of India 2011-2021
- Number of Marriott International hotels worldwide 2009-2022
- Foreign exchange earnings from tourism in India 2000-2022
- National park visitor spending in the U.S. 2012-2021, by category
- Economic contribution of national park visitor spending in the U.S. 2012-2021
- Manage Subscription
Tourism dollars flow from Tennessee Whiskey Trail
October 22, 2023 at 1:34 p.m.
by Anne Braly / Tennessee Lookout
Bill Lee stands beside an old boxcar parked off to one side of a lot at the Chattanooga Choo Choo – quite a fitting place for an old railroad car to spend its days. But it's not sitting empty.
As Lee pulls the massive iron door open, its contents are revealed: Wooden barrels filled with aging spirits.
"That's gin," he said, pointing to one barrel after another. "That's whiskey. That's vodka. That one's whiskey, too."
Lee — not to be confused with Tennesee's governor, but rather the owner of Gate 11 Distillery in Chattanooga — is one of more than 40 distillers in Tennessee who are members of the Tennessee Distillers Guild, 30-plus of whom are members of the Tennessee Whiskey Trail, a route that showcases their distilleries and stretches across Tennessee — east and west, north and south — attracting more than 8 million visitors annually.
"When people think of Tennessee, I think they think of two things. They think of music, No. 1, because of our rich, musical heritage and contributions to American and world music, " Lee said. "And the second thing they think of is whiskey."
(READ MORE: Rare whiskeys and bourbons are fueling a resurgence of American whiskey among these Chattanooga aficionados)
The Whiskey Trail, he said, is a bit of an adventure.
"People get a sense of accomplishment when they travel it," he said. "We get people who've already done the Bourbon Trail in Kentucky or the Whisky Trail in Scotland, and now they're doing the Whiskey Trail in Tennessee, so it's their next accomplishment."
And you get a two-fer when you visit Gate 11. It's located at the Chattanooga Choo Choo, and right across the street you'll find Chattanooga Whiskey, another stop on the Tennessee Whiskey Trail.
Whiskey is a strong driver of tourism and economic growth in Tennessee, making a $3.45 billion impact on the state economy through sales, overnight lodging, food and beverage, according to a study commissioned by the Tennessee Whiskey Trail. In addition, whiskey tourism and sales supported 30,000 jobs in the state and created tax revenues of $441.1 million.
"Visitors from around the world make the pilgrimage each year to explore the time-honored craft of Tennessee Whiskey," said Mark Ezell, commissioner for the Tennessee Department of Tourist Development. "It's an important driver of tourism, which creates revenue and jobs for many Tennesseans."
Nearest Green Distillery, located in Bedford County, is six years old and has become the seventh-most visited distillery in the world, said Brielle Caruso, chief marketing officer at Nearest Green.
"The state is a true destination for whiskey drinkers, and Nearest Green Distillery certainly benefits from being part of this iconic trail," she said, adding that she predicts the economic boom generated by Tennessee whiskey to continue as the tourism forecast predicts more than 8 million visitors to the state's distillery when the final numbers come in for 2023.
And it's not just the tourism industry that benefits from whiskey. Tennessee agriculture does, as well.
Many of the craft distilleries, such as Gate 11, purchase grain for their products from Tennessee farmers. In return, the farms dip into the spirit world as distilleries' spent grains return to nearby farms to feed livestock. It's a circle of life that goes from field to farm.
Of all the bourbon whiskeys and Scotch whiskys brewed worldwide, Tennessee whiskey has its own story to tell.
A little history lesson: Whiskey-making in Tennessee predates the Civil War. In fact, it's the Scots-Irish, known for their prowess in making whisky, who brought the art of whiskey-making to the Volunteer State. They were so prolific and skilled in their craft, Tennessee's Confederate government outlawed the production of spirits. But once the ban was lifted, distilling began again in earnest and, within four decades, there were hundreds of distilleries across the state registered and bottling hooch.
(READ MORE: Chattanooga Whiskey wins top Craft Producer award and other business news)
No two distilleries are the same. Each offers a different history, tasting experience and scenery. Some, such as Jack Daniel, George Dickel and Nearest Green, are located in small, scenic areas of the state. Others, like Gate 11 in Chattanooga, Old Dominick in Memphis and Nashville Barrel Co., are located in downtown urban areas.
Nearest Green Distillery sits on 432 prime acres in the heart of Middle Tennessee and distinguishes itself from other whiskey makers as the first to honor the first-known American-African master distiller, Nearest Green.
But that's not the only distinction for this Shelbyville distillery. It's also credited with helping perfect the Lincoln County Process, a method known as charcoal mellowing that sends newly made spirits through a pile of charcoal before it becomes whiskey. And that, you may have wondered, is what makes Tennessee whiskey different from Kentucky bourbon. (All bourbons are whiskey, but not all whiskeys are bourbon.)
Nearest Green is not only a stop on the Tennessee Whiskey Trail. Its location is one that brings visitors by the carload to Shelbyville, generating thousands of dollars annually for the Bedford County community where Green, known as the Godfather of Tennessee Whiskey, plied his trade.
Lee, too, is seeing an uptick in visitors to his distillery since the Tennessee Whiskey Trial was established, he said. They're not only tasting and buying the three whiskeys made at Gate 11, they're tasting his award-winning gin, vodka, agave, rum, and absinthe, too. The number of spirits distilled at the Chattanooga distillery sets it apart from others in the state.
Top 10 activity
Charity Toombs, executive director of the Tennessee Whiskey Trail and the Tennessee Distillers Guild, said the economic impact that whiskey, particularly the newer craft distilleries, has made in Tennessee is a multi-faceted one.
"Consumer appetite and interest has spurred off of whiskey and the fact that our (newer craft) distilleries are finally old enough to put out a well-fed product has timed perfectly with that interest. The interest in Tennessee has led to a natural interest in Tennessee whiskey, further establishing our state as a travel destination."
According to figures from the Tennessee Department of Tourist Development, the Volunteer State saw 141 million visitors in 2022, up 10.5% from 2021. And winery/brewery/distillery tours are among the top 10 activities in which travelers are most interested.
The first bottles of Jack Daniel's were released in 1866. Nearly 100 years later, George Dickle introduced its whiskey. It took another 40 years before the first craft distillery, Prichard Distillery, opened in Kelso, Tennessee. Then, a reversal of laws set forth during Prohibition enabled craft distilleries to begin operation across the state.
"Tennessee is easily a generation behind in terms of spirit production coming out of Prohibition later than others," Toombs said. "It wasn't even legal to distill outside of the three counties that housed Jack Daniel, George Dickel, and Prichard before 2009. Today, Tennessee distillers are crafting spirits as diverse as the music born in this state. From blues to bluegrass and from vodka to Tennessee whiskey, distillers are bringing our innovative and legendary spirits to our communities and across the world."
Read more at TennesseeLookout.com .
Steve Name Features
Home » What is a tourist flow?
What is a tourist flow?
1. This refers to the spatial patterns of tourists visiting a city . It provides information that is important in managing tourism and providing services and goods that are appropriate for tourists and residents. Click to see full answer
What is tourism system flow? Travel And Tourism Management System Data flow diagram is often used as a preliminary step to create an overview of the Travel without going into great detail, which can later be elaborated. it normally consists of overall application dataflow and processes of the Travel process .
What is the tourism system flow?
Travel And Tourism Management System Data flow diagram is often used as a preliminary step to create an overview of the Travel without going into great detail, which can later be elaborated.it normally consists of overall application dataflow and processes of the Travel process .
What are the types of tourist?
Tourists are classified, according to their needs and their reasons for travelling, into four broad categories: business and professional tourist leisure and holiday tourists tourists travelling to visit friends and relatives (VFR) Youth tourists, including backpackers and gap year travellers .
What are the 4 types of tourists?
Cohen (1972), a sociologist of tourism, classifies tourists into four types, based on the degree to which they seek familiarity and novelty: the drifter, the explorer, the individual mass tourist, and the organized mass tourist . Table 1 depicts the characteristics of these four types.
What are the 3 main types of tourism?
Forms of tourism: There are three basic forms of tourism: domestic tourism, inbound tourism, and outbound tourism .
What are different types of tourism?
What are the different types of tourism?
- 1) Domestic Tourism. In this type of tourism, citizens of a country only travel within their country.
- 2) Health and Wellness Tourism.
- 3) Dark Tourism.
- 4) Alternative tourism.
- 5) Countryside Tourism.
- 6) Business tourism.
- 7) Educational tourism.
- 8) Medical tourism.
Why is tourist flow important?
Tourist flows can also assist tourism practitioners in identifying the potential of a particular destination and promoting balanced tourism development .
How are tourist flows measured?
One good way of measuring tourist flows and inflows is to conduct surveys of tourists . Such surveys may be conducted in the respondents' homes, at the places they are visiting or at points along the way when they are travelling.
Which model explains tourism as a system?
Leiper's Tourism System is a basic conceptualisation of the structure of the tourism industry. It is one of the most widely accepted and most well-known models used in tourism research when attempting to understand the tourism system.
What is the main purpose of tourism system?
Tourism boosts the revenue of the economy, creates thousands of jobs, develops the infrastructures of a country, and plants a sense of cultural exchange between foreigners and citizens . The number of jobs created by tourism in many different areas is significant.
What are the three basic concepts in tourism system?
The basic elements of Leiper's Tourism System There are three major elements in Leiper's Tourism System: the tourists, the geographical features and the tourism industry .
What are the 7 types of tourist?
Leave a reply cancel reply.
Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *
Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
We've detected unusual activity from your computer network
To continue, please click the box below to let us know you're not a robot.
Why did this happen?
For inquiries related to this message please contact our support team and provide the reference ID below.
Mayor: Expect better traffic flow with Pujut 3 roundabout conversion
(From left) Nanta, Yii and Ting during the Works Minister’s visit to the proposed Pujut 3 traffic light site in May this year.
MIRI (Nov 9): Mirians can look forward to smoother traffic flow at the Pujut 3 roundabout now that the construction of the long-awaited traffic light has once again been approved by the Works Ministry, said mayor Adam Yii.
He said as Pujut assemblyman, he together with Deputy Minister of Tourism, Creative Industry and Performing Arts Datuk Sebastian Ting who is Piasau assemblyman had been relentlessly pursuing the approval.
Yii said there were multiple discussions and follow-ups regarding the project, including on the funding needed for the upgrading of the roundabout to a traffic light.
“The Ministry of Works confirmed the allocation in a written reply by Works Minister Dato Sri Alexander Nanta Linggi, in responding to an oral question from Miri MP Chiew Choon Man on Oct 31, 2023.
“They also mentioned that preliminary surveys including measurements and site investigation would commence next year,” he said in a statement.
The mayor added that efforts to upgrade the road “have been quite a journey, with numerous setbacks” due to changes in the federal government over the past few years.
“However, after relentless efforts, it has been approved once again, which brings me great satisfaction.”
According to Yii, he had made several trips to the Works Ministry and followed up on the matter with Nanta, who personally led ministry officials to inspect the site on May 27 this year.
He said after the visit, Nanta had assured that he would do his best to assist in securing the funding.
Yii hoped that the road improvement would alleviate traffic congestion in the area during peak hours and also reduce accidents.