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Find the Nearest Travel Agent to You with These Tips
Traveling can be a daunting task, especially when you don’t know where to start. Finding the right travel agent can be the key to making your trip a success. Here are some tips to help you find the nearest travel agent to you.
Use Online Resources
The internet is a great resource for finding local travel agents. You can search online for local travel agents in your area and read reviews from previous customers. This will help you get an idea of which agents are reliable and experienced in helping people plan their trips. You can also use online resources such as TripAdvisor or Yelp to find out more about the services offered by different agents.
Ask Friends and Family
Another great way to find a local travel agent is to ask your friends and family for recommendations. They may have had good experiences with certain agents in the past, so they can give you an honest opinion about their services. If you don’t know anyone who has used a travel agent before, you can also ask around on social media or in online forums for advice from people who have used them in the past.
Check Local Tourism Offices
Local tourism offices are another great resource for finding nearby travel agents. They usually have information about local agencies that specialize in planning trips for tourists in the area. You can also ask them for recommendations on which agents they recommend based on their experience with them.
Finding the right travel agent is essential if you want to make your trip a success. By using these tips, you should be able to find the nearest travel agent to you quickly and easily. With the right agent, you’ll be able to plan an amazing trip that will leave you with unforgettable memories.
This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.
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Tourism is one of the most important industries in the world and it occupies a vital place in the modern experience. This class examines the evolution of tourism from the eighteenth century to the present, while critically engaging with tourist practices and tourist sites. After establishing a clear history of global tourism, the class will conclude with an extended consideration of the "heritage industry."
Various academic disciplines have repeatedly sought to re-evaluate the significance of tourism. Globalised tourism's so-cio-economic place within the framework of the leisure and holidaying opportunities on offer today has attracted particular attention. Such accounts often leave out the fact that this also has a history. The present article aims to overcome this shortcoming: it seeks to present an overview of the important structures, processes, types and trends of tourism against the background of historical developments. It deals with early forms of travel in the classical world and the Middle Ages, as well as the precursors of modern tourism, Bildungsreisen ("educational journeys") and the middle-class culture of travel. It then examines the boom in mass tourism in the 19th century and the unique expansion of tourism in the 1960s characterised by new forms of holidaying and experience shaped by globalisation.
Eric G. E. Zuelow
Tourism is one of the largest industries in the world. Yet leisure travel is not just economically important. This pastime plays a vital role in defining who we are by helping to place us in space and time. In so doing, it has aesthetic, medical, political, cultural, and social implications. It was not always so. Tourism as we know it is a surprisingly modern thing, both a product of modernity and a force helping to shape it. A History of Modern Tourism is the first book to track the origins and evolution of this pursuit from earliest times to the present. From a new understanding of aesthetics to scientific change, from the invention of steam power to the creation of aircraft, from an elite form of education to family car trips to see national “shrines,” this book offers a sweeping and engaging overview of a fascinating story not yet widely known. ". . . a very readable account of how tourism has developed since The Grand Tour of the 18th century. It looks at movers and shakers in the tourism sector - from Thomas Cook and George Pullman to Billy Butlin, Freddie Laker and even Adolf Hitler - and at how the industry has shaped globalisation and the modern world." (Adam Nebbs, South China Morning Post, 1 Nov. 2015) This book is now available in hardcover, paperback, and electronic formats. http://www.amazon.com/History-Modern-Tourism-Eric-Zuelow/dp/0230369642/ref=sr_1_4?ie=UTF8&qid=1433518027&sr=8-4&keywords=Zuelow. Readers may also be interested in the supplementary website which contains bibliographies, lists of websites, teaching materials, and more: http://ericzuelow.com/ModernTourism/About.html Publisher website: http://www.palgrave.com/page/detail/a-history-of-modern-tourism-eric-zuelow/?isb=9780230369641
International Journal of Scientific Management and Tourism, 2015, Vol.2 pp 179-215
António S . Queirós
The main terms, such Culture, Cultural Landscape, Heritage or Cultural Tourism are not neutral scientific objects. They are academic constructions emerging in historical contexts. The concept of " motivation " is consensual for understand and explain the nature of the tourism demand, but is sufficient? We think no. We need enlarging the hermeneutic of tourism with the concept of " taste ". They are linked to a consensual paradigm. This paper wants to discuss this conceptual framework, discovering at the same time if we are in presence of some anomalies, observe multiple, unexplained or unexpected events and if a rival paradigm emerges. The second line of debate is about the connection between cultural tourism and tourism economy. Researching how is create and reproduced the capital of tourism and recognising the cultural values and products penetration in the tourism activity. Their propose: Restructuring tourism for more competitiveness and productivity (and sustainability) meaning to offer new Route and Circuits integrating cultural heritage and patrimony of nature. The third line want to discuss the idea of Cultural Tourism based on built heritage, views and lifestyle, as well as events and happenings, from a critical view. Our goal will be to build a conceptual framework to design the identity of Cultural Tourism and different types of tourism. This theoretical framework must be the same. Those principles must be commons. Our thesis is that those principles are the different organic structures and products. Different organic structures and products can to distinguish tourism cultural from tourism of nature; tourism of nature from rural tourism…and so one. A new conceptual research framework emerges and a new tourism paradigm: Environmental Tourism.
Tourism Recreation Research
Maximiliano E. Korstanje
The sense of physical movement has changed forever. To put this in slightly other terms, dark tourism isolates and replaces the tourists in the virtuality of cyber-space. This begs a more than interesting point: we live in a world where tourists do not travel anymore. This happens because the experience has certainly replaced the physical movement as the key element that molds tourism (Kaelber, 2007). This and other interesting connotations are placed under critical scrutiny in the present chapter. The importance these types of new tourism have received in the Academy is directly proportional to the changes the industry is facing. Still further, the question of whether doom-tourism consists in moving to sites or destinations which are in the bias of disappearance, suggests two important assumptions. On one hand, this industrial world Urry mentioned has been changed by a decentralized and chaotic form of production and accumulation. On another hand, the process of deindustrialization, adjoined to the rise of individualism, is creating a form of consumptions that are unique, special, and cannot be repeated in any way. This is consistent to what Yves Michaud dubbed as “new luxury”, which means the replication of patterns that, far from being communicated to others – as the classic travel stories – are tended to reinforce pleasure-maximization and egocentrism (Michaud, 2013).
For many years tourism has been one of the principal ways through which the relationship between heritage and globalisation is analytically articulated. Countless studies since the 1970s have considered the arrival of tourism as the precipitator of modernity, of modernisation and of widespread social transformation. There is little doubt this tradition of scholarship will continue to thrive and evolve. By way of a contribution to this research, this chapter sets out to illustrate why current debates in this field need to shift direction, and why frameworks which better reflect the realities of today's global tourism industry need to be developed, most notably ones which can better account for the ongoing rise of non-Western forms of tourism.
The conventional view of tourism's past is dominated by the history of western cultural experience. Tourism starts with the wealthy, with images of prestigious visits to spas and seaside resorts, Grand Tours and the activities of business entrepreneurs such as Thomas Cook, before it begins to filter down the social ladder. This paper argues that more attention should be paid to tourism's past in non-western societies and cultures and to the more ordinary and routine practices of a wider cross-section of the population. It is too simplistic to portray tourism's evolution as a geographical process of diffusion from one or two core areas and a social process of downward movement from the affluent. Reasons for the prevailing image of tourism's past are suggested and several ideas are proposed for broadening research into its history.
While tourism scholars have struggled over decades to establish tourism as a valid academic discipline, it's no less true that social scientists have developed a negative image of our colleagues. This in fact happens because for social imaginary leisure and tourism are naïve activities, or practices enrooted in an alienatory nature. Paradoxically, many of founding parents of sociology of tourism was embraced this belief, the advance of modernity, as well as tourism, will disorganize the social ties. In this essay review, we place the French Tradition under the critical lens of scrutiny revealing alternatives in tourism epistemology between tourism as a profit-oriented industry and as a mechanism of discipline.
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The dangers of modern tourism and how to avoid them
When early explorers traveled the seas, all they had was a compass and a map. When you travel the seas today, all you use is your smartphone—and its endless applications. But in recent years, we’ve seen this endlessness lead to overtourism, exploiting hotspot destinations and hurting the environment. Nevertheless, there are actions we can take to make modern tourism a win-win situation.
In the early stages of tourism, people would typically book their trips at physical travel agencies, through agents who were experts in their field. After the internet emerged, more and more information became available, and instead of having to rely on an expert, we became the experts. Online travel agencies such as Booking and Kayak became the norm, and traveling today is as easy and accessible as ever. Prices are constantly dropping due to the growing number of competitors (cheap airlines, AirBnB, etc.) catering to this exponential demand.
Modern tourism and its dangers
Due to this accessibility, the travel sector today is booming. The industry makes up 10% of the world’s economy , with 1 out of 10 jobs being in tourism . Spain specifically has the second-largest number of international tourist arrivals in Europe with a whopping 83 million per year. Yet, the way we travel has changed fundamentally, where instead of asking locals and navigating with guidebooks, we simply take out our phone and let it do its magic.
Photo by Giancarlo Silva
Why is this a bad thing?
Increased connectivity and access to apps such as Instagram and Google Maps has led to the tourist invasion of undeveloped areas. The modern-day traveler is now called an “explorer.” Buzzwords like “off-the-beaten-track” and “authentic traveler” are favored self-portrayals.
The modern tourist craves Insta-worthy snaps and undiscovered corners of the world. They stray from over-crowded hotspots full of other camera-wielding, Birkenstock-clad visitors, so they can feel like a local… at least for a day.
Unfortunately, locals in these hotspots often don’t reap the benefits of these waves of visitors. Sudden mass tourism can disrupt the area’s economic system and ultimately decrease of the locals’ quality of life .
And it’s not just the locals who are affected. Mass tourism wreaks havoc on the planet, primarily in the form of air travel. In 2020, we’re flying more often than ever, and commercial airplanes contribute 1 gigaton of CO2 to the Earth’s atmosphere every year.
Protect—don’t just promote—destinations
So what can we do as a society to cut down our carbon footprint ?
First, it’s travel agencies’ responsibility to identify overtourism as a potential danger to both people and the environment, putting a halt to destination marketing and prioritizing destination management.
On the other hand, governments and tourism boards need to realize that there’s such a thing as a maximum number of tourists a country can bear, and thereafter, use the appropriate metrics and data to set smart restrictions. Stricter rules about Airbnbs, for example, ensure locals don’t get pushed out of their homes. This type of regulation keeps tourism sustainable and cities livable.
Finally, we as individuals can change the way we travel, opting where possible to travel by ground rather than air, staying in eco-friendly accommodations, and spending your money at local, independent businesses rather than big corporations.
Instead of fighting modern tourism entirely, we should work to find solutions as we encounter them, so that tourists—or “travelers” or “explorers” or what have you—can keep discovering the world while protecting locals and taking care of the environment .
Virtual reality and modern tourism
Journal of Tourism Futures
ISSN : 2055-5911
Article publication date: 29 April 2020
Issue publication date: 2 June 2021
The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight as to how recent trends in virtual reality (VR) have changed the way tourism and hospitality industry communicates their offerings and meets the tourists’ needs.
The approach is based on systematic literature review, where the relations between focal concepts are given to analyze potential future developments concerning VR.
The paper identifies and analyzes how VR technology affected tourism and hospitality industry through three main touch points – future tourism planning and management, technology-based marketing of tourism destinations and VR potential in changing consumer requirements. These concepts were analyzed to identify changing forces and suggest potential paradigm shifts that tourism and hospitality suppliers and marketers need to consider. These included realistic virtual travel replacements, the importance of interactive experiences and innovation in future tourism systems.
While there has been increasingly larger number of discussions on how tourists and tourism and hospitality industry have been using information and communication technology recently, there is little evidence of scholars and practitioners applying such methods. This paper used systematic literature review to illustrate means in which VR could be ingrained into tourism and hospitality services to meet the needs of tourists. It suggests that VR can and probably will fundamentally change the way in which tourists’ experiences and requirements are managed entirely.
- Virtual reality
- Emerging trends
Pestek, A. and Sarvan, M. (2021), "Virtual reality and modern tourism", Journal of Tourism Futures , Vol. 7 No. 2, pp. 245-250. https://doi.org/10.1108/JTF-01-2020-0004
Emerald Publishing Limited
Copyright © 2020, Almir Pestek and Maida Sarvan.
Published in Journal of Tourism Futures . Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this license may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode
One of the most significant developments in the field of information and communication technology (ICT) expected to greatly impact the tourism industry today is virtual reality (VR). Many of the recent innovations such as VR platforms, devices and content production tools enable the evolution of VR. As such, VR technologies nowadays offer unbounded potentials for mass virtual visitations to actual tourism destinations. Moreover, the roles of such technologies in tourism and hospitality industries, its management and marketing have been described in literature as capable of showing their intricate abilities to simulate real-life situations and contexts, occasionally being touted as a substitute to actual travel, making it a very powerful tool for meeting the needs of tourists.
The changes that are supposed to occur in the next few years are always underestimated and come even sooner. Tourism and hospitality organizations should be urged to be more future-oriented and prepared fully for the planning of technology adaptations. The paper aims at establishing relations between concepts of VR and tourism and hospitality industry and presenting opportunities for the tourism sector taking in consideration the values expressed in the concept of VR marketing in efforts of meeting the needs of tourists in the future. The paper explores the potential of valuable tool such as VR with regard to tourism planning and management, technology-based marketing of tourism destinations and effects of VR on consumer requirements.
The paper is based on the literature review. The following digital bases were used in the process of research: Emerald Database, IOPscience, SCOPUS, EBSCO, ABI/INFORM Complete – ProQuest. The items in the search string were connected with OR statements, to make sure that all relevant papers were retrieved - “virtual reality,” “virtual reality marketing,” “virtual reality experience,” “augmented reality experience,” and “ICT in tourism”. Only 49 articles were yielded because of their relevance after applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria. Inclusion criteria include: published articles between 2010 and 2019; articles written in English, scientific and peer-reviewed articles; studies published in electronic digital libraries from newspapers or journals; and educational conferences. Exclusion criteria are as follows: duplicated papers and studies returned by different search engines, papers and works that focus on low-level comparison, editorials and non-reviewed articles. Based on these studies the conclusions are drawn throughout the paper.
Technology-based marketing of tourism destinations
VR is often defined as the technology using the computer-generated 3D environment often referred to as “virtual environment.” The real-time simulation of one or more of the five senses of the user is often a result of navigation through this virtual environment and interaction with it ( Gutierrez et al. , 2008 ). Physical immersion and psychological presence are provided in VR experience as well.
The marketing and promotion segments of the tourism sector have most often been used with the assistance of visual imagery ( Aziz and Zainol, 2011 ). The intangible properties of tourism, as a service, constantly reminds the marketers that there is a need to continuously innovate the forms of visual imagery with the objective to promote a positive destination image ( Griffin et al. , 2017 ). As a useful tool used by marketers in establishing the communication of emotions and experiences influencing the consumers and tourists, VR is often used because of its ability to induce the emphasized sensory and emotional experience.
The opportunities of VR in regard to destination marketing organizations are found in the way in which marketing messages are targeted to specific markets, whilst capturing the attention of potential visitors and giving assistance in relevant factors identification that essentially create motivations for those that engage in any form of VR and awareness development in reference to future travel decision-making processes ( Huang et al. , 2013 ). Research indicates that virtual tourists can have their travelling needs easily fulfilled under the following conditions: taking into consideration the hedonistic and emotional experiences, virtual tourism destinations can give visitors the chance to enhance their perceptions and virtual world is displayed as a source of useful information.
To conclude, VR in marketing of tourism destinations can be associated with attachment ( Wu et al. , 2016 ), stimulation ( Neuburger et al. , 2018 ), evaluation (Gao et al. , 2012), decision-making ( Guo and Barnes, 2011 ) and experience ( Jung et al. , 2017 ).
Virtual reality changes tourism planning, management and consumer requirements
VR is considered a very valuable tool in tourism policy creation as well as in the planning processes ( Cheong, 1995 ). The tourism planner’s consideration of possible developments in the sector is often aided by VR’s ability to create realistic and navigable virtual environments.
The tourism planning and management can be benefited by VR technology, as it possesses the unique testing capabilities ( Sussmann and Vanhegan, 2000 ). The understanding of visitors’ patterns of space, time and place is a very important element in developing management plans, which include shifting the burden from areas with heavy use to those with limited use. 3D visualizations are excellent tools in doing so ( Lew and McKercher, 2005 ). Furthermore, as VR technology continues to evolve, the entertainment industry has found a way to make these evolutions very useful in regards to marketing the entertaining tourist attractions ( Gutierrez et al. , 2008 ).
A set of concepts which are interrelated identify the current trends in tourism and its references to marketing, consumer behavior and tourist needs and the ways in which these affect the end users’ attachment, stimulation and decision-making process ( Epple, 2018 ). Research that explores the consumer behavior in VR tourism through the example of using the stimulus – organism – response model identifies that the brands and tourism organizations are able to affect the users’ opinions and decisions directly and effectively through this interactivity, experience and immersion ( Kim et al. , 2018 ).
The roles of hedonic experience and emotional arousal are found to be large in regards to determining the potential tourists’ behavioral intentions to visit a given destination and also in motivating them to become the potential tourists ( Jung et al. , 2017 ). On a similar note, the navigation of 3D environment is found to induce positive emotions, flow and emotional involvement, which results in positive effects on behavioral intentions, further extending the engagement and immersive experience that enhances the tourist’ needs.
As a subsequent consequence of advancement in virtual technologies, the impression of investors and consumers continues to grow and VR is being envisioned and implemented largely to meet the future needs of tourists. The potential of VR technologies in meeting the future tourists’ needs is large and the research identifies the major trends in tourism sector in regards to this in the further text ( Nayyar et al. , 2018 ).
Identified trends in tourism industry are found in effective planning and suitable management. As the almost-realistic, easy and detailed navigations created through the VR are readily available for tourists to help in their trip- and activity-planning processes, its potential is further widened. Furthermore, the trend is identified through creation of various types of simulators which allow for the virtual experience, where potential tourists are able to experience a destination in advance, such as in the case of some destination marketing organizations ( Tussyadiah et al. , 2018 ).
The VR technologies are already used in provision of tourists with experience previews of sites, destinations and attractions, such as hotels, cruise ships and similar, as a part of the marketing strategy ( Samuely, 2016 ). Virtual conative image that most often results in potential purchase intention is yielded through Web-mediated virtual information ( Hyun and O’Keefe, 2012 ).
The applications of VR are largely found in the initial phases of customer buying cycle in the area of tourism, because it enables the extensive information about important factors that play a significant part in the search stage of the process of decision-making ( Kim et al. , 2018 ). Furthermore, the perfect digital environment enables for the creation of virtual attractions at an effective cost, which are identified in simulators and marketable tourist attractions. Examples of these include the “Sensorama Simulator” that, through the 3D images, aromas, sounds, wind, set vibrations and similar, offers entertaining, simulated motorcycle rides through New York City ( Gutierrez et al. , 2008 ). Also, an example of such application of VR in entertainment industry is found in theme parks, such as the Dreamworld theme park, with simulated car rides ( Dreamworld, 2009 ) and also Cyber Speedway in the city of Las Vegas ( Sahara Hotel and Casino, 2009 ).
A large trend in the sector is identified in provisions of virtual tours as well, including the handling of virtual objects, interactive and immersive experience and a realistic picture of the site. This is most commonly used in heritage areas, hotels and museums, including the zoo exhibits ( Bowman et al. , 1999 ), VR exhibits in cultural centers globally ( Roussou, 2004 ), viewing of heritage sites ( Thomasson, 2006 ), production of interactive tours ( Tholos, 2009 ), selection of tourist attractions within an area ( Linaza et al. , 2008 ) and so on.
Many hotels have demonstrated that the VR trend is very useful in the destination marketing area as well and as such the room booking process has been entirely transformed ( Neuburger et al. , 2018 ). Technology provides for prospective guests to virtually visit rooms and consider their offers, like in the case of Marriott Hotels, including the previews of the local attractions, giving potential tourists insights in destinations.
Another example of VR trend is identified by Telexistence, a company that has been working with a real-life avatar, where the user is enabled to see what the avatar sees and to also receive haptic feedback (Telexistence Inc., 2020). Such example is very important in identification of possibilities in meeting the tourists’ needs in the future, such as a travel decision that will immediately satisfy their need after a particular interest and desire is awaken, whilst also enabling for VR travel to be possible, allowing the tourists which might possibly be intimidated by certain destinations and as such, would only visit them virtually, as in the case of possible existence of potential geographical barriers, fears, dangerous locations and similar.
The identified trends indicate that VR technology will most likely become an invaluable tool in the next few years ( Barnes, 2016 ), which consequently will dictate the marketers to custom make the VR experiences for the varying users and offer the best possible VR services to meet the consumers’ future needs most optimally.
Certain conclusions can be drawn implying that the VR is changing tourism planning and consumer requirements can be associated with 3D visualizations ( Brent Ritchie et al. , 2011 ), simulators ( Tom Dieck et al. , 2016 ), virtual tours ( Tung and Law, 2017 ), previews ( Epple, 2018 ) and effective planning ( Kask, 2019 ).
VR is being developed as a part of smart tourism to provide information about destinations and attractions while showing its potential to become a new tourism service. Nonetheless, the trend has proven to be very useful, however slow, because of the difficulties of tourists to keep up with new technologies. Thanks to VR, tourists are able to experience a destination in advance and to preview local attractions. Interactive, realistic, easy and detailed VR navigations help tourists in the trip-planning processes and activity planning.
VR technologies will surely continue to advance, and as such, the opportunities in the tourism sector will grow exponentially. Regardless of the direction in which these advancements and developments take place, immediate applications and trends are identified and used within the tourism industry already.
Whilst many limitations do exist, the future will show the technologies to be much better understood. VR can and probably will fundamentally change the way in which tourists’ experiences and requirements are managed entirely.
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About the authors.
Almir Pestek is based at the School of Economics and Business, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia And Herzegovina.
Maida Sarvan is based at NLB Bank d.d. Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia And Herzegovina.
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