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IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 5 Test 4 Reading passage 1; The Impact of Wilderness Tourism; with best solutions and best explanations

This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to  IELTS Cambridge 5 Reading Test 4 Reading Passage 1 entitled ‘ The Impact of Wilderness Tourism’ . This is a target post for IELTS candidates who have huge problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can help you the best to comprehend every Reading answer very easily. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a steady process, and this post will assist you in this respect.

IELTS Cambridge 5 Test 4: AC Reading Module

Reading Passage 1: Questions 1-13

The headline of the passage: The Impact of Wilderness Tourism

Questions 1-3: List of headings

[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph that will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.

TIPS: Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly and don’t stop until you finish each sentence.]

Question no. 1: Section A

Section A contains two paragraphs. In the first paragraph, take a look at line no. 7, “ . .. these regions are fragile (i.e. highly vulnerable to abnormal pressures). . .”

Then, in the second paragraph, the author of the passage says, “ Tourists are drawn to these regions by their natural landscape beauty and the unique cultures of their indigenous people . And poor governments in these isolated areas have welcomed the new breed of ‘adventure tourist’, grateful for the hard currency they bring . For several years now, tourism has been the prime source of foreign exchange in Nepal and Bhutan. Tourism is also a key element in the economies of Arctic zones such as Lapland and Alaska and in desert areas such as Ayers Rock in Australia and Arizona’s Monument Valley.”

Here, Tourists are drawn to these regions by their natural landscape beauty and the unique cultures of their indigenous people, poor governments in these isolated areas have welcomed the new breed of ‘adventure tourist’, grateful for the hard currency they bring = the reason for the expansion of tourism there,

So, the answer is: iii (Fragile regions and the reasons for the expansion of tourism there)

Question no. 2: Section B

Section B explains how wilderness tourism has negatively affected areas such as mountains, deserts and arctic regions. Look at these lines from the first paragraph, “ .. ..  When hill-farmers, for example, can make more money in a few weeks working as porters for foreign trekkers than they can in a year working in their fields, . .. .. .. . In some hill-regions, this has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change in the local diet, because there is insufficient labour to maintain terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops. The result has been that many people in these regions have turned to outside supplies of rice and other foods.”

Then, in the second paragraph, the writer talks about the effects in the Arctic region, “ .. . However, as some inhabitants become involved in tourism, they no longer have time to collect wild food; this has led to increasing dependence on bought food and stores . … . .”

So, the answer is: v (Some of the disruptive effects of wilderness tourism)

Question no. 3: Section C

In section C, the first few lines of the second paragraph indicate the answer to this question, “In the Swiss Alps, communities have decided that their future depends on integrating tourism more effectively with the local economy . .. ..”

Here, integrating tourism more effectively with the local economy = How local communities can balance their own needs with the demands of wilderness tourism,

Also, in the third paragraph, in lines 3-4, the writer talks more about the integration, “ . . . But some Arctic communities are now operating tour businesses themselves , thereby ensuring that the benefits accrue locally. … ..”

Here, Arctic communities are now operating tour businesses themselves = How local communities can balance their own needs with the demands of wilderness tourism,

So, the answer is: ii (How local communities can balance their own needs with the demands of wilderness tourism)

Question 4-9: YES, NO, NOT GIVEN

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text- YES The statement in the question contradicts with the claim of the writer in the text- NO The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN

TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question no. 4: The low financial cost of selling up wilderness tourism makes it attractive to many countries.

Keywords for the question: low financial cost, selling up, wilderness tourism, makes, attractive, many countries,

The answer lies in section A, in beginning of the first paragraph, “ .. . . Countries all across the world are actively promoting their ‘wilderness’ regions – such as mountains. Arctic lands, deserts, small islands and wetlands – to high-spending tourists. The attraction of these areas is obvious: by definition, wilderness tourism requires little or no initial investment . . …”

Here, wilderness tourism requires little or no initial investment = low financial cost of selling up wilderness tourism,

So, the answer is: YES

Question no. 5: Deserts, mountains and Arctic regions are examples of environments that are both ecologically and culturally fragile.

Keywords for the question: Deserts, mountains and Arctic regions, examples of environments,

The answer is in the first paragraph of section A in lines 7-8, “ .. .. these regions are fragile (i.e. highly vulnerable to abnormal pressures) not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants . . ..”

Here, not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants = both ecologically and culturally,

Question no. 6: Wilderness tourism operates throughout the year in fragile areas.

Keywords for the question: wilderness tourism, operates, throughout the year, fragile areas,

The last lines of paragraph no. 1 in section A gives us the answer, “ . .. . Consequently, most human activities, including tourism , are limited to quite clearly defined parts of the year .”

Here, limited to quite clearly defined parts of the year = tourism does not operate throughout the year in fragile areas,

So, the answer is: NO

Question no. 7: The spread of tourism in certain hill-regions has resulted in a fall in the amount of food produced locally.

Keywords for the question: spread of tourism, certain hill-regions, resulted, fall in the amount of food, produced locally,

In section B, lines 2-8 of the first paragraph says, “. . .. When hill-farmers, for example, can make more money in a few weeks working as porters for foreign trekkers than they can in a year working in their fields, it is not surprising that many of them give up their farm-work, which is thus left to other members of the family. In some hill-regions, this has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change in the local diet, because there is insufficient labour to maintain terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops. .. ..”

Here, the lines suggest that many farming communities have left their jobs of farming as they can earn more money by selling pottery to the travellers due to the spread of tourism. This has resulted in a serious decline in farm output ( resulted in a fall in the amount of food produced locally ).

Question no. 8: Traditional food-gathering in desert societies was distributed evenly over the year.

Keywords for the question: traditional food-gathering, desert societies, distributed evenly, over the year,

In section B, in the second paragraph, take a look at the first few lines, “In Arctic and desert societies , year-round survival has traditionally depended on hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit over a relatively short season . . .. .”

Here, hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit = traditional food-gathering, over a relatively short season = NOT distributed evenly over the year,

Question no. 9: Government handouts do more damage than tourism does to traditional patterns of food-gathering.

Keywords for the question: government handouts, do more damage, than, tourism does, traditional patterns, food-gathering,

We find the mention of ‘government handouts’ in line no. 6 in the second paragraph of section B. However, we find NO COMPARISON on whether ‘government handouts’ do more damage to traditional patterns of food-gathering than tourism does.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question 10-13: Completing table: ONE WORD ONLY

[In this type of question, candidates need to fill in the gaps in a table with ONE WORD ONLY. Skimming and scanning, both reading skills are essential for this question-type.]

Title of the table: The positive ways in which some local communities have responded to tourism

Question no. 10:

People/Location: Swiss Pays d’Enhaut

Activity: Revived production of ___________.

Keywords for the question: Swiss Pays d’Enhaut, revived, production,

Take a look at section C. In paragraph no. 2, the writer says, “ . .. .. Local concern about the rising number of second home developments In the Swiss Pays d’Enhaut resulted in limits being imposed on their growth. There has also been a renaissance in communal cheese production in the area, providing the locals with a reliable source of income that does not depend on outside visitors.”

Here, renaissance in communal cheese production = revived production of cheese,

So, the answer is: cheese

Question no. 11:

People/Location: Arctic communities

Activity: Operate ___________ businesses.

Keywords for the question: Arctic communities, operate, businesses,   

Again, in section C, take a look at paragraph no. 3. In lines 3-4, the writer says, “ . .. But some Arctic communities are now operating tour businesses themselves, thereby ensuring that the benefits accrue locally. … .”

So, the answer is: tourism/tourist/tour

Question no. 12:

People/Location: Acoma and San Ildefonso

Activity: Produce and sell ___________.

Keywords for the question: Acoma and San Ildefonso, produce, sell,

In paragraph no. 4 of section C, the author says in lines 3-4, “ .. . The Acoma and San Ildefonso pueblos have established highly profitable pottery businesses , ….”

Here, businesses = produce and sell,

So, the answer is: pottery  

Question no. 13:  

People/Location: Navajo and Hopi

Keywords for the question: Navajo and Hopi, produce, sell,   

In paragraph no. 4 of section C, the author says in lines 4-5, “ .. . while the Navajo and Hopi groups have been similarly successful with Jewellery .”

Here, similarly successful = successful in producing and selling,

So, the answer is: jewelry/ jewellery  

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 5 AC Test 4 Reading Passage 2

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 5 AC Test 4 Reading Passage 3

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3 thoughts on “ IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 5 Test 4 Reading passage 1; The Impact of Wilderness Tourism; with best solutions and best explanations ”

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The Impact of Wilderness Tourism – IELTS Reading Answers

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Updated On Mar 08, 2022

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The Impact of Wilderness Tourism 

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The Impact Of Wilderness Tourism Reading Answers: IELTS Reading Practice Test

Updated on Jun 13, 2024, 12:12

The IELTS Reading section is designed to evaluate your reading comprehension skills. In this section, you'll encounter a variety of texts, ranging from newspaper articles to academic papers, each followed by a set of questions designed to assess your ability to understand, interpret, and analyse written information.  

The passage about “Impact Of Wilderness Tourism” explores the consequences of the growing trend of wilderness tourism on natural environments and local communities. This thought-provoking text delves into the complex interplay between economic development, environmental conservation, and cultural preservation in regions attracting tourists seeking remote and untouched landscapes.

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1. The Impact Of Wilderness Tourism Reading Passage

You should spend approximately 20 minutes answering  Questions 1 - 13  based on the Reading Passage below. This approach can help manage time effectively during a reading comprehension activity or exam. 

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2. The Impact Of Wilderness Tourism Reading Question & Answers

Discover exciting and informative IELTS reading answers about The Impact Of Wilderness Tourism

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The Impact Of Wilderness Tourism Reading Passage

  • Read Instructions: Understand each question before answering.
  • Manage Time: Spend about 20 minutes per passage.
  • Skim and Scan: Quickly get the main idea and find specific information.
  • Highlight Key Info: Underline essential words or phrases.
  • Answer All Questions: Attempt every question; no penalty for wrong answers.
  • Stay Focused: Avoid distractions and keep your attention on the task.
  • Check Spelling: Ensure correct spelling and grammar.
  • Transfer Answers Clearly: Write answers neatly on the answer sheet.
  • Don’t Dwell: Move on if stuck and return later.
  • Review: If time allows, review your answers.

 The Impact Of Wilderness Tourism Reading Passage

Paragraph A

The tourism industry In rural locations is booming like never before. Mountains, Arctic territories, deserts, small islands, and wetlands are just a few of the 'wilderness' places that countries all over the world are pushing to high-spending tourists. The attraction of these regions is obvious.- by definition, wilderness tourism demands little or no upfront expenditure. But that does not mean that there is no expense. As the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development recognised, these places are fragile (i.e. very subject to abnormal stresses) not simply in terms of their ecosystem but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants. The three major categories of fragile environments in this regard, as well as the proportion of the Earth's surface they cover, are deserts, mountains, and Arctic areas. An essential aspect is their significant seasonality, with harsh circumstances prevailing for many months each year. As a result, most forms of human activity, such as tourism, are restricted to specific times of year.

Paragraph B

Tourists are drawn to these locations by their natural scenic beauty and the unique traditions of their indigenous people. And poor governments in these distant locations have welcomed the new kind of ‘adventure tourist’, appreciative of the hard dollar they bring. Nepal and Bhutan have relied heavily on tourism as a source of foreign currency for several years. Arctic regions like Lapland and Alaska, as well as desert regions like Ayers Rock in Australia and Monument Valley in Arizona, rely heavily on tourists to support their economies.

Paragraph C

The local population will be drastically altered once a certain area becomes a popular tourist destination. It's hardly surprising that many hill farmers leave their farm work to other members of the family when, for example, they can make more money in a few weeks working as porters for foreign trekkers than they can in a year working on their fields. Due to a lack of labour to keep up terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops, agricultural productivity has dropped drastically in several hill regions, altering the local cuisine. As a result, many residents of these areas have begun relying on food aid from elsewhere, particularly on rice imports.

Paragraph D

Traditional year-round subsistence in Arctic and desert communities has relied on a relatively limited season of hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit. Yet other locals' increased involvement in tourism has left them with less time to forage, leading to a growing reliance on commercially produced foods and supermarkets. Sometimes, locals or residents are responsible for these shifts, and not tourists. Any form of paid labour or government handouts has the potential to destabilise established social structures and ways of life. No matter the root cause, the question remains the same: what would happen if these supplementary revenue streams disappear?

Paragraph E

Another major issue with expansion is the strain that tourists put on infrastructure. When engaging in extreme tourism. The necessity to serve tourists with cooked food and hot showers has resulted in a lot of deforestation and has had an influence on water resources, but erosion along key paths has gotten a lot more press. Both mountainous regions and arid regions rely heavily on fuel wood from slow-growing trees since water sources may be scarce or depleted due to high demand.

Paragraph F

Numerous news reports and personal accounts have surfaced in recent years detailing the many negative aspects of the tourism industry. However, that is not necessarily an issue. There will always be some negative impact from tourists, but it is possible to lessen the blow to already vulnerable ecosystems and local traditions. As with the Sherpas of Nepal's Khumbu Valley and other Alpine settlements, tourism can even serve as a means of revitalising indigenous traditions. And an increasing number of adventure tourism businesses are working to guarantee that their operations have a positive long-term impact on the local community and environment.

Paragraph G

Locals in the Swiss Alps have recognised the need of incorporating tourism into the regional economy. As a result of locals' worries about the proliferation of second-home communities in the Swiss Pays d'Enhaut, the expansion of such projects has been restricted. The making of cheese in communities has also seen a resurgence. In the region, giving inhabitants a steady income that doesn't hinge on tourists.

Paragraph H

Outside corporations have abused many Arctic tourist hotspots, hiring seasonal workers and sending most of the money back to their home countries. However, some Arctic towns are taking matters into their own hands by running tour enterprises. A good illustration of this would be an Alaskan native-owned and -operated business. It is operating a flight from Anchorage to Kotzebue, where visitors may sample Arctic fare, see the tundra, and take in a performance of traditional music and dance.

Paragraph I

Peoples of the Continent of the Americas Similar techniques have been implemented in the American Southwest's desert regions, where artisans and craftspeople work hard to attract tourists to their pueblos and reservations so that they can sell their wares. The pottery industries of the Acoma and San ildefonso pueblos are quite successful with jewellery, while those of the Navajo and Hopi are equally so.

Paragraph J

Too many vulnerable communities have seen tourism threaten their economies, cultures, and landscapes, leading to a loss of authority over all three. The problem of imbalance cannot be solved by merely limiting tourism, as people will always have a desire to explore the world. Instead, communities in vulnerable ecosystems need to gain more sway over tourist projects in their areas so that they can meet their own goals without sacrificing those of visitors. With strong communal decision-making, more and more communities are showing that this is achievable. This raises the crucial question of whether or not this can become the norm rather than the exception.

The Impact Of Wilderness Tourism Reading Question & Answers

Questions and answers 1-6.

  • YES if the statement agrees with the information given
  • NO if the statement contradicts the information given
  • NOT GIVEN if there is no information about this

1. Because of the cheap financial cost of offering wilderness tourism, it is appealing to many governments.  

2. Deserts, mountains, and Arctic areas are examples of biologically and culturally sensitive habitats.  

3. Wilderness tourism is available all year in sensitive locations.  

4. The increase in tourists in certain highland regions has reduced the amount of food produced locally.  

5. Food gathering in desert communities was spread equitably throughout the year.  

6. Government subsidies harm traditional food-gathering practices more than tourism.

The Impact Of Wilderness Tourism Reading Answers with Explanations (1-6)

Type of question: Yes/No/Not Given(True/False/Not Given)

In this question type, you are required to determine whether the statements provided agree with, contradict, or are not mentioned in the reading passage. 

How to best answer:   

  • Understand what information is being presented and what is being asked.
  • Find relevant information in the reading passage that relates to the statement.
  • Determine if the statement agrees with, contradicts, or is not mentioned in the passage.
  • If the information is not explicitly provided in the passage, select 'Not Given' rather than making assumptions.
  • Base your answers solely on the information presented in the passage, avoiding personal opinions or outside knowledge.

From paragraph A:  "The attraction of these regions is obvious.- by definition, wilderness tourism demands little or no upfront expenditure."  

Explanation

The statement aligns with the passage as it emphasizes the appeal of wilderness tourism due to its low financial cost, which governments find attractive.

From paragraph A:  "The three most major categories of fragile environment in this regard, and also in terms of the proportion of the Earth's surface they cover, are deserts, mountains and Arctic areas."

The statement agrees with the writer's opinion as it acknowledges deserts, mountains, and Arctic areas as biologically and culturally sensitive habitats.

From paragraph A:  "As a result, most forms of human activity, such as tourism, are restricted to specific times of the year."  

The statement contradicts the writer's opinion. The passage explicitly states that most forms of human activity, including tourism, are restricted to specific times of the year in sensitive locations.

From paragraph C:  "Due to a lack of labour to keep up terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops, agricultural productivity has dropped drastically in several hill regions, altering the local cuisine."

This statement reflects the writer's opinion as it highlights the negative impact of increased tourism on food production in certain highland regions.

From paragraph D:  "Traditional year-round subsistence in Arctic and desert communities has relied on a relatively limited season of hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit."  

The statement contradicts the writer's opinion. The passage indicates that traditional food gathering in desert communities relied on a relatively limited season.

From paragraph:  N.A.

The passage doesn't provide a clear opinion on whether government subsidies harm traditional food-gathering practices more than tourism. Therefore, the writer's opinion on this statement is not given.

Questions and Answers 7-10

  • Complete the table below.
  • Choose ONE WORD from the Reading Passage for each answer.
  • Write your answers in boxes 7-10 on your answer sheet.

The positive ways In which some local communities have responded to tourism

The Impact Of Wilderness Tourism Reading Answers with Explanations (7-10)

Type of question: Completing a table

Under this task, you are required to fill in missing information in a table based on the information provided in the passage. These questions typically appear as part of the matching information or summary completion tasks.

How to answer: 

  • Quickly skim the passage for the main idea and relevant details.
  • Note keywords or headings in the table to place missing information.
  • Read surrounding sentences carefully for specific details.
  • Use accurate and grammatically correct information from the passage.
  • Verify and finalise your answers.

From paragraph G:  "The making of cheese in communities has also seen a resurgence."

The resurgence of cheese-making in Swiss Pays d'Enhaut is mentioned in paragraph G as a positive response to tourism, providing locals with a steady income that doesn't rely solely on tourists.

From paragraph H:  However, some Arctic towns are taking matters into their own hands by running tour enterprises.  

Arctic communities operate tour businesses, as stated in paragraph H, which demonstrate a proactive response to tourism by taking control of the tourism industry themselves.

From paragraph I:  "The pottery industries of the Acoma and San Ildefonso pueblos are quite successful with jewellery, while those of the Navajo and Hopi are equally so."  

The successful pottery industries of the Acoma and San Ildefonso pueblos, as well as those of the Navajo and Hopi, are highlighted in paragraph I, indicating a positive response to tourism through the production and sale of pottery.

From paragraph I: “The pottery industries of the Acoma and San Ildefonso Pueblos are quite successful with jewellery, while those of the Navajo and Hopi are equally so.”  

The successful production and sale of jewellery by the Navajo and Hopi communities, as mentioned in paragraph I, reflect a positive response to tourism, providing economic opportunities for locals.

Questions and Answers 11-13

  • Reading Passage has three sections: A-C .
  • Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below.
  • Write the correct number i-vi in boxes 11-15 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings  

I. In recent years, there has been an increase in international tourism.

II. How can local communities strike a balance between their own needs and the demands of wilderness tourism?

III. Fragile regions and the motives for tourism expansion

IV. Traditional food-supply strategies in vulnerable regions

V. Some of the negative consequences of wilderness tourism

VI. The Economic Advantages of Mass Tourism

11.  Section A

12.  Section B

13.  Section C

The Impact Of Wilderness Tourism Reading Answers with Explanations (11-13)

Type of question: Matching Headings

In this question type, you will be asked to choose the correct heading for each paragraph from a list of headings provided. This type of question assesses your ability to understand the main idea or theme of each paragraph.

How to best answer: 

  • Familiarise yourself with the list of headings before reading the paragraphs. This helps you know what to look for.
  • Identify the main idea or theme of each paragraph by looking for topic sentences or recurring themes.
  • Find keywords or phrases that are similar to those in the headings. This can help you make connections.
  • Eliminate incorrect options that don't match any paragraphs to narrow down your choices.
  • Skim and Scan each paragraph efficiently to get a context about the content.

From paragraph A:  "As the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development recognised, these places are fragile (i.e. very subject to abnormal stresses) not simply in terms of their ecosystem but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants."  

Paragraph A discusses the fragility of wilderness regions, highlighting the environmental and cultural sensitivity of these areas, which aligns with the motives for tourism expansion.

From paragraph C:  "The local population will be drastically altered once a certain area becomes a popular tourist destination."  

Paragraph C discusses the negative consequences of wilderness tourism, particularly the alteration of local populations and their traditional ways of life due to the influx of tourists.

From paragraph J:  "Instead, communities in vulnerable ecosystems need to gain more sway over tourist projects in their areas so that they can meet their own goals without sacrificing those of visitors."  

Paragraph J addresses how local communities can strike a balance between their own needs and the demands of wilderness tourism by gaining control over tourist projects to align with their goals without compromising visitors' interests.

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impact of wilderness tourism answers

The impact of wilderness tourism Reading Questions and Answers

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IELTS Reading Passage: The impact of wilderness tourism

impact of wilderness tourism answers

              The impact of wilderness tourism 

Tourism industry In rural locations is booming like never before. Mountains, Arctic territories, deserts, small islands, and wetlands are just a few of the ‘wilderness’ places that countries all over the world are pushing to high-spending tourists. The attraction of these regions is obvious.- by definition, wilderness tourism demands little or no upfront expenditure. But that does not mean that there is no expense. As the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development recognised, these places are fragile (i.e. very subject to abnormal stresses) not simply in terms of their ecosystem, but also in terms of the culture of its inhabitants. The three most major categories of fragile environment in these regards, and also in terms of the proportion of the Earth’s surface they cover, are deserts, mountains and Arctic areas. An essential aspect is their significant seasonality, with harsh circumstances prevailing for many months each year. As a result, most forms of human activity, such as tourism, are restricted to specific times of year.

Tourists are drawn to these locations by their natural scenic beauty and the unique traditions of its indigenous people. And poor governments in these distant locations have welcomed the new kind of ‘adventure tourist’, appreciative for the hard dollar they bring. Nepal and Bhutan have relied heavily on tourism as a source of foreign currency for several years. Arctic regions like Lapland and Alaska, as well as desert regions like Ayers Rock in Australia and Monument Valley in Arizona, rely heavily on tourists to support their economies.

The local population will be drastically altered once a certain area becomes a popular tourist destination. It’s hardly surprising that many hill-farmers leave their farm work to other members of the family when, for example, they can make more money in a few weeks working as porters for foreign trekkers than they can in a year working on their fields. Due to a lack of labour to keep up terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops, agricultural productivity has dropped drastically in several hill-regions, altering the local cuisine. As a result, many residents of these areas have begun relying on food aid from elsewhere, particularly on rice imports.

Traditional year-round subsistence in Arctic and desert communities has relied on a relatively limited season of hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit. Yet other locals’ increased involvement in tourism has left them with less time to forage, leading to a growing reliance on commercially produced foods and supermarkets. Sometimes locals or residents are responsible for these shifts, and not tourists. Any form of paid labour or government handouts has the potential to destabilise established social structures and ways of life. No whatever the root cause, the question remains the same: what would happen if these supplementary revenue streams disappear?

Another major issue with expansion is the strain that tourists put on infrastructure. When engaging in extreme tourism. The necessity to serve tourists with cooked food and hot showers has resulted in a lot of deforestation and has had an influence on water resources, but erosion along key paths has gotten a lot more press. Both mountainous regions and arid regions rely heavily on fuel wood from slow-growing trees since water sources may be scarce or depleted due to high demand.

Numerous news reports and personal accounts have surfaced in recent years detailing the many negative aspects of the tourism industry. However, that is not necessarily an issue. There will always be some negative impact from tourists, but it is possible to lessen the blow to already vulnerable ecosystems and local traditions. As with the Sherpas of Nepal’s Khumbu Valley and other Alpine settlements, tourism can even serve as a means of revitalising indigenous traditions. And an increasing number of adventure tourism businesses are working to guarantee that their operations have a positive long-term impact on the local community and environment.

Locals in the Swiss Alps have recognised the need of incorporating tourism into the regional economy. As a result of locals’ worries about the proliferation of second-home communities in the Swiss Pays d’Enhaut, the expansion of such projects has been restricted. The making of cheese in communities has also seen a resurgence. In the region, giving inhabitants a steady income that doesn’t hinge on tourists.

Outside corporations have abused many Arctic tourist hotspots, hiring seasonal workers and sending most of the money back to their home countries. However, some Arctic towns are taking matters into their own hands by running tour enterprises. A good illustration of this would be an Alaskan native-owned and -operated business. Is operating a flight from Anchorage to Kotzebue, where visitors may sample Arctic fare, see the tundra, and take in a performance of traditional music and dance.

Peoples of the Continent of the Americas Similar techniques have been implemented in the American Southwest’s desert regions, where artisans and craftspeople work hard to attract tourists to their pueblos and reservations so that they can sell them their wares. The pottery industries of the Acoma and San ildefonso pueblos are quite successful with jewellery, while those of the Navajo and Hopi are equally so.

Too many vulnerable communities have seen tourism threaten their economies, cultures, and landscapes, leading to a loss of authority over all three. The problem of imbalance cannot be solved by merely limiting tourism, as people will always have a desire to explore the world. Instead, communities in vulnerable ecosystems need to gain more sway over tourist projects in their areas so that they can meet their own goals without sacrificing those of visitors. With strong communal decision-making, more and more communities are showing that this is achievable. This raises the crucial question of whether or not this can become the norm rather than the exception.

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The impact of wilderness tourism Reading Questions

Do the following statements reflect the opinion of the writer of Reading Passage? In boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet, write

YES if the statement reflects the opinion of the writer NO if the statement contradicts the opinion of the writer NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this 

1. Because of the cheap financial cost of offering wilderness tourism, it is appealing to many governments. 2. Deserts, mountains, and Arctic areas are examples of biologically and culturally sensitive habitats. 3. Wilderness tourism is available all year in sensitive locations. 4. The increase in tourists in certain highland regions has reduced the amount of food produced locally. 5. Food gathering in desert communities was spread equitably throughout the year. 6. Government subsidies harm traditional food-gathering practises more than tourism.

Want to excel in identifying the writer’s views and claims? Click here to explore our in-depth guide on how to accurately determine Yes, No, or Not Given in the IELTS Reading section .

Questions     7-10

Complete the table below.

Choose ONE WORD from Reading Passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 7-10 on your answer sheet.

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Questions 11-13

Reading Passage has three sections, A-C.

Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below. Write the correct number i-vi in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet.

11.  Section A 12.  Section B 13.  Section C

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The impact of wilderness tourism reading answers

1.  Yes 2. Yes 3. No 4. Yes 5. No 6. Not given 7. Cheese 8. Tour 9.  Pottery 10. Jewellery 11. iii 12. V 13. ii

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The Impact of Wilderness Tourism: Reading Answers

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IELTS Academic Test – Passage 10: The Impact of Wilderness Tourism reading with answers explanation, location and pdf summary. This reading paragraph has been taken from our huge collection of Academic & General Training (GT) Reading practice tests PDF’s.

The Impact of Wilderness Tourism Reading Answers & PDF

The Impact of Wilderness Tourism

A The market for tourism in remote areas is booming as never before. Countries all across the world are actively promoting their ‘wilderness’ regions – such as mountains, Arctic lands, deserts, small islands and wetlands – to high-spending tourists. The attraction of these areas is obvious: by definition, wilderness tourism requires little or no initial investment. But that does not mean that there is no cost. As the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development recognized, these regions are fragile (i.e. highly vulnerable to abnormal pressures) not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants. The three most significant types of fragile environment in these respects, and also in terms of the proportion of the Earth’s surface they cover, are deserts, mountains and Arctic areas. An important characteristic is their marked seasonality, with harsh conditions prevailing for many months each year. Consequently, most human activities, including tourism, are limited to quite clearly defined parts of the year. Tourists are drawn to these regions by their natural landscape beauty and the unique cultures of their indigenous people. And poor governments in these isolated areas have welcomed the new breed of ‘adventure tourist’, grateful for the hard currency they bring. For several years now, tourism has been the prime source of foreign exchange in Nepal and Bhutan. Tourism is also a key element in the economies of Arctic zones such as Lapland and Alaska and in desert areas such as Ayers Rock in Australia and Arizona’s Monument Valley. B Once a location is established as a main tourist destination, the effects on the local community are profound. When hill-farmers, for example, can make more money in a few weeks working as porters for foreign trekkers than they can in a year working in their fields, it is not surprising that many of them give up their farm-work, which is thus left to other members of the family. In some hill-regions, this has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change in the local diet, because there is insufficient labour to maintain terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops. The result has been that many people in these regions have turned to outside supplies of rice and other foods.

In Arctic and desert societies, year-round survival has traditionally depended on hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit over a relatively short season. However, as some inhabitants become involved in tourism, they no longer have time to collect wild food; this has led to increasing dependence on bought food and stores. Tourism is not always the culprit behind such changes. All kinds of wage labour, or government handouts, tend to undermine traditional survival systems. Whatever the cause, the dilemma is always the same: what happens if these new, external sources of income dry up? The physical impact of visitors is another serious problem associated with the growth in adventure tourism. Much attention has focused on erosion along major trails, but perhaps more important are the deforestation and impacts on water supplies arising from the need to provide tourists with cooked food and hot showers. In both mountains and deserts, slow-growing trees are often the main sources of fuel and water supplies may be limited or vulnerable to degradation through heavy use. C Stories about the problems of tourism have become legion in the last few years. Yet it does not have to be a problem. Although tourism inevitably affects the region in which it takes place, the costs to these fragile environments and their local cultures can be minimized. Indeed, it can even be a vehicle for reinvigorating local cultures, as has happened with the Sherpas of Nepal’s Khumbu Valley and in some Alpine villages. And a growing number of adventure tourism operators are trying to ensure that their activities benefit the local population and environment over the long term. In the Swiss Alps, communities have decided that their future depends on integrating tourism more effectively with the local economy. Local concern about the rising number of second home developments in the Swiss Pays d’Enhaut resulted in limits being imposed on their growth. There has also been a renaissance in communal cheese production in the area, providing the locals with a reliable source of income that does not depend on outside visitors. Many of the Arctic tourist destinations have been exploited by outside companies, who employ transient workers and repatriate most of the profits to their home base. But some Arctic communities are now operating tour businesses themselves, thereby ensuring that the benefits accrue locally.

For instance, a native corporation in Alaska, employing local people, is running an air tour from Anchorage to Kotzebue, where tourists eat Arctic food, walk on the tundra and watch local musicians and dancers. Native people in the desert regions of the American Southwest have followed similar strategies, encouraging tourists to visit their pueblos and reservations to purchase high-quality handicrafts and artwork. The Acoma and San Ildefonso pueblos have established highly profitable pottery businesses, while the Navajo and Hopi groups have been similarly successful with jewellery. Too many people living in fragile environments have lost control over their economies, their culture and their environment when tourism has penetrated their homelands. Merely restricting tourism cannot be the solution to the imbalance, because people’s desire to see new places will not just disappear. Instead, communities in fragile environments must achieve greater control over tourism ventures in their regions; in order to balance their needs and aspirations with the demands of tourism. A growing number of communities are demonstrating that, with firm communal decision-making, this is possible. The critical question now is whether this can become the norm, rather than the exception.

Questions 1-3

Reading Passage 10 has three paragraphs,  A-C . Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below. Write the correct number  i-vi  in boxes  1-3  on your answer sheet.

1.   Section A       2.   Section B       3.   Section C

________________

1) IELTS 5 READING PASSAGE – THE RETURN OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ↗

2) IELTS 5 READING PASSAGE – DISAPPEARING DELTA ↗

3) IELTS 5 READING PASSAGE – FLAWED BEAUTY: PROBLEM WITH TOUGHENED GLASS ↗

4) IELTS 5 READING PASSAGE – EFFECTS OF LIGHT ON PLANT & ANIMAL SPECIES ↗

Questions 4-9

Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 10? In boxes  4-9  on your answer sheet, write:

YES     if the statement reflects the claims of the writer NO     if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer NOT GIVEN     if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

4.  The low financial cost of setting up wilderness tourism makes it attractive to many countries.   5 . Deserts, mountains and Arctic regions are examples of environments that are both ecologically and culturally fragile.   6 . Wilderness tourism operates throughout the year in fragile areas.   7 . The spread of tourism in certain hill-regions has resulted in a fall in the amount of food produced locally.   8 . Traditional food-gathering in desert societies was distributed evenly over the year.   9 . Government handouts do more damage than tourism does to traditional patterns of food-gathering. 

Questions 10-13

Choose  ONE WORD  from Reading Passage 82 for each answer. Write your answers in boxes  10-13  on your answer sheet.

The Impact of Wilderness Tourism: Reading Answers & PDF

Reading Answers

Check out The Impact of Wilderness Tourism reading answers below with locations and explanations given in the text.

1. iii   2. v   3. ii   4. YES   5. YES   6. NO   7. YES   8. NO  9. NOT GIVEN   10. cheese   11. tourist/ tourism/tour businesses  12. pottery   13. jewelry/ jewellry

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IELTS Academic Reading # 82 - The Impact of Wilderness Tourism

Ielts academic reading sample - the impact of wilderness tourism, the impact of wilderness tourism.

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IELTS Cambridge 5 Test 4 : ACADEMIC READING ANSWERS

Reading Passage 1: The Impact of Wilderness Tourism

Questions 1-3: List of headings

[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph that will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.

TIPS: Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly and don’t stop until you finish each sentence.]

Question no. 1:  Section A

Section A contains two paragraphs. In the first paragraph, take a look at line no. 7, “ . ..  these regions are fragile  (i.e. highly vulnerable to abnormal pressures). . .”

Then, in the second paragraph, the author of the passage says, “ Tourists are drawn to these regions by their natural landscape beauty and the unique cultures of their indigenous people . And  poor governments in these isolated areas   have welcomed the new breed of ‘adventure tourist’, grateful for the hard currency they bring . For several years now, tourism has been the prime source of foreign exchange in Nepal and Bhutan. Tourism is also a key element in the economies of Arctic zones such as Lapland and Alaska and in desert areas such as Ayers Rock in Australia and Arizona’s Monument Valley.”

Here,  Tourists are drawn to these regions by their natural landscape beauty and the unique cultures of their indigenous people, poor governments in these isolated areas   have welcomed the new breed of ‘adventure tourist’, grateful for the hard currency they bring = the reason for the expansion of tourism there,

So, the answer is:  iii  (Fragile regions and the reasons for the expansion of tourism there)

Question no. 2:  Section B

Section B explains how wilderness tourism has negatively affected areas such as mountains, deserts and arctic regions. Look at these lines from the first paragraph, “ .. ..  When hill-farmers, for example, can make more money in a few weeks working as porters for foreign trekkers than they can in a year working in their fields, . .. .. .. . In some hill-regions, this has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change in the local diet, because there is insufficient labour to maintain terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops. The result has been that many people in these regions have turned to outside supplies of rice and other foods.”

Then, in the second paragraph, the writer talks about the effects in the Arctic region, “ .. . However,  as some inhabitants become involved in tourism,  they no longer have time to collect wild food;  this has led to increasing dependence on bought food and stores . … . .”

So, the answer is:  v  (Some of the disruptive effects of wilderness tourism)

Question no. 3:  Section C

In section C, the first few lines of the second paragraph indicate the answer to this question, “In the Swiss Alps,  communities have decided  that  their future depends on integrating tourism more effectively with the local economy . .. ..”

Here,  integrating tourism more effectively with the local economy = How local communities can balance their own needs with the demands of wilderness tourism,

Also, in the third paragraph, in lines 3-4, the writer talks more about the integration, “ . . . But some  Arctic communities are now operating tour businesses themselves , thereby ensuring that the benefits accrue locally. … ..”

Here,  Arctic communities are now operating tour businesses themselves = How local communities can balance their own needs with the demands of wilderness tourism,

So, the answer is:  ii  (How local communities can balance their own needs with the demands of wilderness tourism)

Question 4-9: YES, NO, NOT GIVEN

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text-  YES The statement in the question contradicts with the claim of the writer in the text-  NO The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text-  NOT GIVEN

TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question no. 4:  The low financial cost of selling up wilderness tourism makes it attractive to many countries.

Keywords for the question:  low financial cost, selling up, wilderness tourism, makes, attractive, many countries,

The answer lies in section A, in beginning of the first paragraph, “ .. . . Countries all across the world are actively promoting their ‘wilderness’ regions – such as mountains. Arctic lands, deserts, small islands and wetlands – to high-spending tourists. The attraction of these areas is obvious: by definition,  wilderness tourism requires little or no initial investment . . …”

Here,  wilderness tourism requires little or no initial investment = low financial cost of selling up wilderness tourism,

So, the answer is:  YES

Question no. 5:  Deserts, mountains and Arctic regions are examples of environments that are both ecologically and culturally fragile.

Keywords for the question:  Deserts, mountains and Arctic regions, examples of environments,

The answer is in the first paragraph of section A in lines 7-8, “ .. ..  these regions   are fragile  (i.e. highly vulnerable to abnormal pressures)  not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants . . ..”

Here,  not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants = both ecologically and culturally,

Question no. 6:  Wilderness tourism operates throughout the year in fragile areas.

Keywords for the question:  wilderness tourism, operates, throughout the year, fragile areas,

The last lines of paragraph no. 1 in section A gives us the answer, “ . .. . Consequently, most human activities, including  tourism , are  limited to quite clearly defined parts of the year .”

Here,  limited to quite clearly defined parts of the year = tourism does not operate throughout the year in fragile areas,

So, the answer is:  NO

Question no. 7:  The spread of tourism in certain hill-regions has resulted in a fall in the amount of food produced locally.

Keywords for the question:  spread of tourism, certain hill-regions, resulted, fall in the amount of food, produced locally,

In section B, lines 2-8 of the first paragraph says, “. . .. When hill-farmers, for example, can make more money in a few weeks working as porters for foreign trekkers than they can in a year working in their fields, it is not surprising that many of them give up their farm-work, which is thus left to other members of the family. In some hill-regions, this has  led to a serious decline in farm output  and a change in the local diet, because there is insufficient labour to maintain terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops. .. ..”

Here, the lines suggest that many farming communities have left their jobs of farming as they can earn more money by selling pottery to the travellers due to the spread of tourism. This has resulted in  a serious decline in farm output ( resulted in a fall in the amount of food produced locally ).

Question no. 8:  Traditional food-gathering in desert societies was distributed evenly over the year.

Keywords for the question:  traditional food-gathering, desert societies, distributed evenly, over the year,

In section B, in the second paragraph, take a look at the first few lines, “In Arctic and  desert societies , year-round survival has traditionally depended on  hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit  over a relatively short season . . .. .”

Here,  hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit = traditional food-gathering, over a relatively short season =  NOT  distributed evenly over the year,

Question no. 9:  Government handouts do more damage than tourism does to traditional patterns of food-gathering.

Keywords for the question:  government handouts, do more damage, than, tourism does, traditional patterns, food-gathering,

We find the mention of ‘government handouts’ in line no. 6 in the second paragraph of section B. However,  we find NO COMPARISON  on whether ‘government handouts’ do more damage to traditional patterns of food-gathering than tourism does.

So, the answer is:  NOT GIVEN

Question 10-13: Completing table: ONE WORD ONLY

[In this type of question, candidates need to fill in the gaps in a table with ONE WORD ONLY. Skimming and scanning, both reading skills are essential for this question-type.]

Title of the table:  The positive ways in which some local communities have responded to tourism

Question no. 10:

People/Location: Swiss Pays d’Enhaut

Activity: Revived production of ___________.

Keywords for the question:  Swiss Pays d’Enhaut,   revived, production,

Take a look at section C. In paragraph no. 2, the writer says, “ . .. .. Local concern about the rising number of second home developments In the  Swiss Pays d’Enhaut  resulted in limits being imposed on their growth. There has also been a   renaissance  in communal  cheese  production  in the area, providing the locals with a reliable source of income that does not depend on outside visitors.”

Here,  renaissance  in  communal cheese production = revived production of cheese,

So, the answer is:  cheese

Question no. 11:

People/Location: Arctic communities

Activity: Operate ___________ businesses.

Keywords for the question:  Arctic communities, operate, businesses,   

Again, in section C, take a look at paragraph no. 3. In lines 3-4, the writer says, “ . .. But some  Arctic communities  are now  operating   tour   businesses  themselves, thereby ensuring that the benefits accrue locally. … .”

So, the answer is:  tourism/tourist/tour

Question no. 12:

People/Location: Acoma and San Ildefonso

Activity: Produce and sell ___________.

Keywords for the question:  Acoma and San Ildefonso, produce, sell,

In paragraph no. 4 of section C, the author says in lines 3-4, “ .. . The Acoma and San Ildefonso pueblos have established highly profitable  pottery   businesses , ….”

Here,  businesses = produce and sell,

So, the answer is:  pottery  

Question no. 13:   

People/Location: Navajo and Hopi

Keywords for the question:  Navajo and Hopi, produce, sell,   

In paragraph no. 4 of section C, the author says in lines 4-5, “ .. . while the  Navajo and Hopi  groups have been  similarly successful  with  Jewellery .”

Here,  similarly successful = successful in producing and selling,

So, the answer is:  jewelry/ jewellery  

Reading Passage 2: Flawed Beauty: the problem with toughened glass

Questions 14-17: Matching statements with a list of people

[In this type of question, candidates need to relate statements that are given by or link to people in the passage. The rules for finding answers to this sort of question are simple. Just find the name of the person and read around it carefully. Then, give a quick look to check whether there is another statement or idea provided by the same person in the text. If there is, check the reference carefully and decide your answer. Remember, the questions may not follow any sequential order.]

Question no. 14:  Brian Waldron

Keywords for the question:  Brian Waldron

At the very first paragraph, the  nickel sulphide failure of a glass pane in the town of Cirencester in the UK  is mentioned.

Then, in the next paragraph (paragraph no. 2) we can see a comment made by Brian Waldron. “The glass industry is aware of the issue,’ says  Brian Waldron , .. .. .. .. But he insists that cases are few and far between. ‘It’s a  very rare phenomenon .’ he says.”

Here,  very rare phenomenon = very unusual,

So, the answer is:  G  (claims that nickel sulphide failure is very unusual)

Question no. 15:  Trevor Ford

Keywords for the question:  Trevor Ford

The answer can be found in paragraph no. 3, in lines 10-14, “ .. . .  ‘What you hear is only the tip of the iceberg,’ says  Trevor Ford , a glass expert at Resolve Engineering in Brisbane. Queensland. He believes the reason is simple: ‘No-one wants bad press.’”

Here,  No-one wants bad press = publicity about nickel sulphide has been suppressed,

So, the answer is:  A  (suggests that publicity about nickel sulphide failure has been suppressed)

Question no. 16:  Graham Dodd

 Keywords for the question:  Graham Dodd

The answer to this question can be found in paragraph no. 8, in lines 6-15, “ .. . . It could happen just months after manufacture, or  decades later , although if the glass is heated – by sunlight, for example – the process is speeded up. Ironically, says  Graham Dodd , of consulting engineers Arup in London, the oldest pane of toughened glass known to have failed due to nickel sulphide inclusions was in Pilkington’s glass research building in Lathom, Lancashire. The pane was  27 years old .”

Here,  decades later & 27 years old = most extreme case of delayed failure ,

So, the answer is:  H  (refers to the most extreme case of delayed failure)

Questions no. 17:  John Barry

Keywords for the question:  John Barry

In the final paragraph (paragraph no. 10), the writer mentions the work of John Berry in lines 7-12, “ .. .. . John Barry, an expert in nickel sulphide contamination at the University of Queensland,  analysed every glass pane in the building . Using a studio camera, a photographer went up in a cradle to take photos of every pane. … .”

Here,  analysed every glass pane in the building = closely examined all the glass in one building ,

So, the answer is:  C  (closely examined all the glass in one building)

Questions 18-24: Completing summary with list of words

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to complete a summary with a list of words taken from the passage. Candidates must  write the correct letter  (not the words) as the answers. Keywords and synonyms are important to find answers correctly. Generally, this type of question maintains a sequence. Find the keywords in the passage and you are most likely to find the answers.]

The title of the summary: Toughened Glass

Question no. 18:  Toughened glass is favoured by architects because it is much stronger than ordinary glass, and the fragments are not as ________ when it breaks.

Keywords for the question:  toughened glass, favoured by architects, because, much stronger than, ordinary glass, fragments, not, when it breaks,

In paragraph no. 4, the writer mentions the reason why architects favour toughened glass in lines 4-11, “ .. . .. This glass has  five times the strength of standard glass , and  when it does break   it shatters into tiny cubes rather than large, razor- sharp  shards .  Architects love it  because large panels can be bolted together to make transparent walls, and turning it into ceilings and floors is almost as easy.”

Here,  five times the strength of standard glass = much stronger than ordinary glass, Architects love it = Toughened glass is favoured by architects, rather than large, razor- sharp  shards = the fragments are not as  sharp  when it breaks,

So, the answer is:  F  (sharp)

Question no. 19:  However, it has one disadvantage: it can shatter _________.

Keywords for the question:  however, one disadvantage, can shatter,

In paragraph no. 8 the writer says in lines 4-5, “ . .. .  the stresses this unleashes can  shatter  the whole sheet.  The time that elapses before failure occurs is   unpredictable .

Here,  The time  that elapses before failure occurs is   unpredictable  = it can shatter  unexpectedly ,

So, the answer is:  I  (unexpectedly)

Question no. 20:  This fault is a result of the manufacturing process. Ordinary glass is first heated, then cooled very ________.

Keywords for the question:  this fault, result, manufacturing process, ordinary glass, first heated, then cooled, very,

The answer can be found in paragraph no. 5. At the beginning, the writer says, “It is made by  heating  a sheet of  ordinary glass  to about 620°C to soften it slightly, allowing its structure to expand, and  then cooling  it  rapidly  with jets of cold air. . . . .”

Here,  rapidly = quickly,  

So, the answer is:  C  (quickly)

Question no. 21:  The outer layer ________ before the inner layer, and the tension between the two layers which is created because of this makes the glass stronger.

Keywords for the question:  outer layer, before, inner layer, tension between the two layers,  created, because of this, makes, glass, stronger,   

In paragraph no. 5, look closely at lines 5-11, “ .. . . This causes the  outer layer  of the pane  to contract  and solidify  before the interior . When the interior finally solidifies and shrinks, it exerts a pull on the outer layer that leaves it in permanent compression and produces a tensile force inside the glass. .. .”

Here,  before the interior = before the inner layer,

So, the answer is:  K  (contracts)

Question no. 22:  However, if the glass contains nickel sulphide impurities, crystals of nickel sulphide are formed. These are unstable and can expand suddenly, particularly if the weather is ________. If this happens, the pane of glass may break.

Keywords for the question:  however, if, glass contains, nickel sulphide impurities, crystals of nickel sulphide, formed, unstable, can expand, suddenly, particularly, if, weather, if this happens, pane of glass, may break,   

The answer can be found in two places. First, in paragraph no. 6, the writer provides a hint of heat that can cause damage to glass, “ .. .  As the glass is heated , these atoms react to  form tiny crystals of nickel sulphide . Just a tenth of a gram of nickel in the furnace can create up to 50,000 crystals.”

Then, in paragraph no. 8, in lines 5-10, the writer says, “ . .. .  The time that elapses before failure occurs is unpredictable. It could happen just months after manufacture, or decades later, although if the glass is heated – by  sunlight , for example –  the process is speeded up . .. ..”

Here,  sunlight, for example = warm weather,   the process is speeded up = can expand suddenly,

So, the answer is:  E  (warm)

Question no. 23:  The frequency with which such problems occur is _________ by glass experts. Furthermore, the crystals cannot be detected without sophisticated equipment.

Keywords for the question:  frequency, such problems occur, by glass experts, furthermore, crystals, cannot be, detected, without, sophisticated equipment,  

The last part of paragraph no. 8 and the complete paragraph no. 9 indicates that there is a big  dispute  over the issue of the frequency with which such problems occur.

The writer says in paragraph no. 8, “ .. … Ironically, says Graham Dodd, of consulting engineers Arup in London,  the oldest pane of toughened glass known to have failed due to nickel sulphide inclusions  was in Pilkington’s glass research building in Lathom, Lancashire.  The pane was 27 years old .” So, here, one expert (Graham Dodd) is saying that such problems happen after a long time.

Now, in the next paragraph (paragraph no. 9), the writer also says, “Data showing the scale of the nickel sulphide problem is almost impossible to find. The picture is made more complicated by the fact that these crystals occur in batches. So even if on average, there is only one inclusion in 7 tonnes of glass, if you experience one nickel sulphide failure in your building, that probably means you’ve got a problem in more than one pane.  Josie says that in the last decade he has worked on over 15 buildings with the number of failures into double figures .” Here, another expert (Barrie Josie) is saying that over the last 10 years he found such problems 2 times more than previous times.

This suggests that the frequency with which such problems ( failure due to nickel sulphide inclusions ) occur is  disputed  among glass experts.

So, the answer is:  L  (disputed)

Questions 25-26: TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN

The statement in the question agrees with the information in the passage –  TRUE The statement in the question contradicts with the information in the passage –  FALSE If there is no information on this –  NOT GIVEN

For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question no. 24:  Little doubt was expressed about the reason for the Bishops Walk accident.

Keywords for the question:  little doubt, expressed about, reason, the Bishops Walk accident,  

In the last line of paragraph no.1, the writer comments on the Bishops Walk accident. “  .. . . they found that  minute crystals of nickel sulphide trapped inside the glass  had  almost certainly caused the failure .”

Here,  almost certainly caused the failure = little doubt about the reason,

So, the answer is:  TRUE

Question no. 25:  Toughened glass has the same appearance as ordinary glass.

Keywords for the question:  toughened glass, same appearance, as, ordinary glass,   

In this passage, we find how ordinary glass is processed into toughened glass. However,  there is no comparison  of the appearance between toughened glass and ordinary glass.

Question no. 26:  There is plenty of documented evidence available about the incidence of nickel sulphide failure.

Keywords for the question:  plenty of documented evidence, available, about, incidence of nickel sulphide failure,   

In the first lines of paragraph no. 9 the writer states, “Data showing the scale of the nickel sulphide problem is  almost impossible to find . … .”

Here,  almost impossible to find =  there is not enough  documented evidence about the incidence of nickel sulphide failure,

So, the answer is:  FALSE

Reading Passage 3 : The effects of light on plant and animal species

Questions 27-33: TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN

Question no. 27:  There is plenty of scientific evidence to support photoperiodism.

Keywords for the question:  plenty of, scientific evidence, support, photoperiodism, 

Take a look at lines 5-6 in paragraph no. 2, “ . .. . The seasonal impact of day length on physiological responses is called  photoperiodism , and  the amount of experimental evidence  for this phenomenon is  considerable . .. .. .”

Here,  experimental evidence  =  scientific evidence,   considerable = plenty of,   

Question no. 28:  Some types of bird can be encouraged to breed out of season.

Keywords for the question:  some types, bird, can be encouraged, breed, out of season,

In paragraph no. 2, lines 7-8 say, “ . .. For example,  some species of birds’ breeding   can be induced even in midwinter  simply by increasing day length artificially (Wolfson 1964). .. .”

Here,  some species of birds = some types of bird, induced = encouraged, even in midwinter = out of season,

Question no. 29:  Photoperiodism is restricted to certain geographic areas.

Keywords for the question:  Photoperiodism, restricted, certain geographic areas,

In paragraphs no. 2, 3 and 4 the writer mentions  ‘temperate zones’  – areas of the world that have a temperate climate. However,  no mention of any geographical restriction  of photoperiodism can be found in this passage.

Question no. 30:  Desert annuals are examples of 1ong-day plants.

Keywords for the question:  desert annuals, examples, long-day plants,

In paragraph no. 4 the writer says at the end, “. .. . . For example,  desert annuals  germinate, flower and seed whenever suitable rainfall occurs,  regardless of the day length .”

Here,  regardless of the day length = day-neutral,

This means desert annuals are examples of day-neutral plants,  NOT  long-day plants.

So, the answer is:  FALSE

Question no. 31:  Bamboos flower several times during their life cycle.

Keywords for the question:  bamboos, flower, several times, during, life cycle,

At the beginning of paragraph no. 5, the author writes, “ Bamboos  are perennial grasses that remain in a vegetative state for many years and then  suddenly flower, fruit and die  (Evans 1976). … ..”

Here,  suddenly flower, fruit and die = flower one time during life cycle,

Then, the writer provides some statistics to support the sentence.

Question no. 32:  Scientists have yet to determine the cue of  Chusquea abietifolia ’s seasonal rhythm.

Keywords for the question:  scientists, yet to determine, cue, Chusquea abietifolia’s seasonal rhythm

Again, in paragraph no. 5, the writer says in lines 3-6, “. .. Every bamboo of the species  Chusquea abietifolia  on the island of Jamaica flowered, set seed and died during 1884. The next generation of bamboo flowered and died between 1916 and 1918, which suggests a vegetative cycle of about 31 years.  The climatic trigger for this flowering cycle is not yet known , but the adaptive significance is clear.” 

Here,  The climatic trigger for this flowering cycle = Chusquea abietifolia’s seasonal rhythm, not known yet = Scientists have yet to determine,

Question no. 33:  Eastern hemlock is a fast-growing plant.

Keywords for the question:  Eastern hemlock, fast-growing plant,

For this question, we need to go to the final paragraph. In the beginning of the paragraph, the writer says in lines 2-3, “ .. . ..  Shade-tolerant plants  have lower photosynthetic rates and hence  have lower growth rates  than those of shade-intolerant species. .. .”

Then, in line no. 7, the writer says, “ . .. . For example,  eastern hemlock  seedlings are  shade-tolerant .”

As  eastern hemlock  is shade-tolerant plant, it has  lower growth rate  (slow-growing plant).

Questions 34-40: Completing sentences with NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS

In this type of question, candidates are asked to write a maximum of three words to complete sentences on the given topic. For this type of question, first, skim the passage to find the keywords in the paragraph concerned with the answer, and then scan to find the exact word.

[TIPS: Here scanning technique will come in handy. Target the keywords of the questions to find the answers. Remember to focus on Proper nouns, random Capital letters, numbers, special characters of text etc.]

Question no. 34:  Day length is a useful cue for breeding in areas where ________ are unpredictable.

Keywords for the question:  day length, useful cue, breeding, areas, unpredictable,      

The writer says in paragraph no. 2 in lines 2-5, “ .. . ..  Day length  is an  excellent cue , because it provides a perfectly predictable pattern of change within the year. In the temperate zone in spring,  temperatures   fluctuate greatly from day to day , but day length increases steadily by a predictable amount. . .. ”

Here,  excellent cue = useful cue, fluctuate greatly from day to day = unpredictable,  

So, the answer is:  temperatures

Question no. 35:  Plants which do not respond to light levels are referred to as _________.

Keywords for the question:  plants, do not respond, light levels, referred to, as,   

First, in lines 5-7, the writer explains the term that deals with response to light levels, “ .. . The  seasonal impact of day length on physiological responses is called photoperiodism , and the amount or experimental evidence for this phenomenon is considerable. .. . ”

Then, in lines 11-12 of the same paragraph, the writer says, “ . .. . Plants which flower after a period of vegetative growth,  regardless of photoperiod , are  known as   day-neutral plants .”

Here,  regardless of photoperiod = do not respond to light levels, known as =  referred to as,

So, the answer is:  day-neutral (plants)  

Question no. 36:  Birds in temperate climates associate longer days with nesting and the availability of __________.

Keywords for the question:  birds, temperature climates, associate, longer days, nesting, availability of,

Let’s have a close look at paragraph no. 3. Here, the author of the passage says in lines 4-6, “ . .. . Thus many  temperate-zone birds  use the  increasing day lengths  in spring as a cue to begin the  nesting cycle , because this is a point when  adequate food resources   will be assured .”

Here,  temperate-zone birds   = Birds in temperate climates, increasing day lengths = longer days, will be assured = availability,

So, the answer is:  (adequate) food (resources)   

Question no. 37:  Plants that flower when days are long often depend on _________ to help them reproduce.

Keywords for the question:  plants, flower, days are long, often, depend on, help them reproduce,     

The answer to this question can be traced in paragraph no. 4, in lines 3-4, “ . ..  Long-day plants  are adapted for situations that  require   fertilization by insects , or a long period of seed ripening. .. .”

Here,  Long-day plants = Plants that flower when days are long, require = depend on,

So, the answer is:  (fertilization/fertilisation by) insects

Question no. 38:  Desert annuals respond to ________ as a signal for reproduction.

Keywords for the question:  desert annuals, respond, as a signal, reproduction,      

The answer can be found in the last lines paragraph no. 4, “ .. . Day-neutral plants have an evolutionary advantage when the connection between the  favourable period for reproduction  and day length is much less certain. For example,  desert annuals   germinate, flower and seed  whenever  suitable rainfall  occurs, regardless of the day length.”

Here,  germinate, flower and seed = respond,

So, the answer is:  (suitable) rainfall

Question no. 39:  There is no limit to the photosynthetic rate in plants such as___________.

Keywords for the question:  no limit, photosynthetic rate, plants, such as,   

In paragraph no. 6, the last few lines say, “ . .. Some plants reach maximal  photosynthesis  at one-quarter full sunlight, and others, like  sugarcane ,  never reach a maximum , but continue to increase photosynthesis rate as light intensity rises.”

Here,  never reach a maximum = no limit to the photosynthetic rate,

So, the answer is:  sugarcane  

Question no. 40:  Tolerance to shade is one criterion for the ________ of plants in forestry and horticulture.

Keywords for the question:  tolerance to shade, one criterion, plants in forestry and horticulture,

The first two lines of the final paragraph give us the answer to this question. The author says here, “ . .. . Plants in general can be divided into two groups:  shade-tolerant species and shade-intolerant species . This  classification  is commonly used in  forestry  and  horticulture .

Here,  shade-tolerant species and shade-intolerant species = tolerance to shade,

So, the answer is:  classification

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The Impact of Wilderness Tourism Reading Answers| Ielts Reading Cambridge 5 Test 4 Answers

by Navita Thakur | Jun 2, 2021 | 0 comments

This is an IELTS Cambridge 5 Test 4 Reading test Answers. In this post, you will check The Impact of Wilderness Tourism reading answers, Flawed Beauty: the problem with toughened glass reading answers, The effects of light on plant and animal species reading answers. The user can check the answers for reading and analyze their mistakes.

Ielts Reading passage 1 The Impact of Wilderness Tourism , Ielts Reading passage 2 Flawed Beauty: the problem with toughened glass , Ielts Reading passage 3 The effects of light on plant and animal species .| Cambridge 5 Test 4 Answers

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The Impact of Wilderness Tourism- IELTS Reading Answers

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Updated on 07 March, 2024

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The reading section consisting of several questions is one of the most vital parts of IELTS exam preparation. It tests a candidate’s wide range of reading skills, including reading for gist, main ideas, details, skimming, understanding logical arguments, and a writer’s attitude, opinion, and purpose. To achieve a better band score, a candidate must solve numerous sample papers. For better understanding, preparing, and measuring your progress, here is a reading sample on the topic 'The Impact of Wilderness Tourism.'

Table of Contents

The impact of wilderness tourism: ielts reading passage, download e-books for ielts preparation, the impact of wilderness tourism: ielts reading answers, questions 1-3, questions 4-9, learn more about study abroad, questions 10-13, popular study abroad destinations.

A   The market for tourism in remote areas is booming as never before. Countries all across the world are actively promoting their ‘wilderness’ regions mountains, Arctic lands, deserts, small islands and wetlands tourists. The attraction of these areas is obvious: by definition, wilderness tourism requires little or no initial investment. But that does not mean that there is no cost. As the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development recognizes these regions are fragile (i.e. highly vulnerable to abnormal pressures) not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants. The three most significant types of fragile environment in these respects, and also interms of the proportion of the Earth’s surface they cover, are deserts, mountains and Arctic areas. An important characteristic is their marked seasonality, with harsh conditions prevailing for many months each year. Consequently, most human activities, including tourism, are limited to quite clearly defined parts of the year.

Tourists are drawn to these regions by their natural landscape beauty and the unique cultures of their indigenous people. And poor governments in these isolated areas have welcomed the new breed of ‘adventure tourist’, grateful for the hard currency they bring. For several years now, tourism has been the prime source of foreign exchange in Nepal and Bhutan. Tourism is also a key element inthe economies of Arctic zones such as Lapland and Alaska and in desert areas such as Ayers Rock in Australia and Arizona’s Monument Valley. such as to high-spending.

B   Once a location is established as a main tourist destination, the effects on the local community are profound. When hill-farmers, for example, can make more money in a few weeks working as porters for foreign trekkers than they can in a year working in their fields, it is not surprising that many of them give up their farm-work, which is thus left to other members of the family. In some hill-regions,this has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change in the local diet, because there is insufficient labour to maintain terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops. The result has been that many people in these regions have turned to outside supplies of rice and other foods. In Arctic and desert societies, year-round survival has traditionally depended on hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit over a relatively short season. However, as some inhabitants become Involved in tourism, they no longer havetime to collect wild food; this has led to increasing dependence on bought food and stores. Tourism is not always the culprit behind such changes. All kinds of wage labour, or government handouts, tend to undermine traditional survival systems. Whatever the cause, the dilemma is always the same: what happens if these new, external sources of income dry up?   The physical impact of visitors is another serious problem associated with the growth in acdventure tourism. Much attention has focused on erosion along major trails, but perhaps more important are the deforestation and impacts on water supplies arising from the need to provide tourists with cooked food and hot showers. In both mountains and deserts, slow-growing trees are often the main sources of fuel and water supplies may be limited or vulnerable to degradation through heavy use.

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Stories about the problems of tourism have become legion in the last few years. Yet it does not have to be a problem. Although tourism inevitably affects the region in which it takes place, the costs to these fragile environments and their local cultures can be minimized. Indeed, it can even be a vehicle for reinvigorating local cultures, as has happened with the Sherpas of Nepal’s Khumbu Valley and in some Alpine villages. And a growing number of adventure tourism operators are trying to ensure that their activities benefit the local population and environment over the long term. In the Swiss Alps, communities have decided that their future depends on integrating tourism more effectively with the local economy. Local concern about the rising number of second home developments in the Swiss Pays d’Enhautresuited in limits being imposed on their growth. There has also been arenaissance In communal cheese production In the area, providing the locals with a reliable source of income that does not depend on outsicde visitors. Many of the Arctic tourist destinations have been exploited by outside companies, who employ transient workers and repatriate most of the profits to their home base. But some Arctic communities are now operating tour businesses themselves, thereby ensuring that the benefits accrue locally. For instance, a native corporation In Alaska, employing local people, Is running an air tour from Anchorage to Kotzebue, where tourists eat Arctic food, walk on the tundra and watch local musicians and dancers.

Native people in the desert regions of the American Southwest have followed similar strategies, encouraging tourists to visit their pueblos and reservations to purchase high-quality handicrafts and artwork. The Acoma and San lldefonso pueblos have established highly profitable pottery businesses, while the Navajo and Hopi groups have been similarly successful with jewellery. Too many people living in fragile environments have lost control over their economies, their culture and their environment when tourism has penetrated their homelancis. Merely restricting tourism cannot be the solution to the imbalance, because people’s desire to see new places will not just disappear. Instead, communities in fragile environments must achieve greater control over tourism ventures in their regions, in order to balance their needs and aspirations with the demands of tourism. A growing number of communities are demonstrating that, with firm communal decision-making, this is possible. The critical question now is whether this can become the norm, rather than the exception.

Tips/ Guidelines to Answer these Questions

The candidates need to identify the headings (given in lower-case Roman numerals) in this section. The heading refers to the main idea of a paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find the equivalent heading to the correct paragraph (marked with alphabets). Candidates require writing the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their sheet. Often there are some extra headings. 

Skimming is the best way to read and answer these questions. However, you need to understand every word here. Gather the gist of every sentence.

List of Headings

  • The expansion of international tourism in recent years
  • How local communities can balance their own needs with the demands of wilderness tourism
  • Fragile regions and the reasons for the expansion of tourism there
  • Traditional methods of food-supply in fragile regions
  • Some of the disruptive effects of wilderness tourism
  • The economic benefits of mass tourism

Answer: iii

Explanation 

One can refer to the 7th line of section A, where the writer mentions about the regions that are fragile and how tourists are drawn to these fragile regions by their natural landscape beauty and the unique cultures of their indigenous people. And poor governments in these isolated areas have welcomed the new breed of ‘adventure tourist’, grateful for the hard currency they bring.” It indicates the reason for the expansion of tourism in these specific areas. 

Explanation

One can refer to lines 2-16 of Section B, where the writer mentions that hill farmers can make more money in a few weeks working as porters for foreign trekkers than they can in a year working in their field; this has led to increasing dependence on bought food and stores. The section explains how wilderness tourism negatively affected areas, including mountains, deserts, and arctic regions.

The lines 10-12 of section C defines how the local communities strive to balance their needs the increasing demands of wilderness tourism. The section also talks more about integration, where the writer says, “But some Arctic communities are now operating tour businesses themselves, thereby ensuring that the benefits accrue locally.”

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Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 27 -33 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE                  if the statement agrees with the information.

FALSE                if the statement contradicts the information.

NOT GIVEN     if there is no information on this.

4. The low financial cost of setting up wilderness tourism makes it attractive to many countries.

Answer: YES

One can refer to the beginning of section A, where the writer mentions, “Countries all across the world are actively promoting their ‘wilderness’ regions mountains, Arctic lands, deserts, small islands, and wetlands tourists. The attraction of these areas is obvious: by definition, wilderness tourism requires little or no initial investment.” It indicates that people in these countries require minimum financing to sell wilderness tourism. Therefore, the answer is yes.

5. Deserts, mountains, and Arctic regions are examples of environments that are both ecologically and culturally fragile.

One can refer to lines 7-8 of Section A, where the writer mentions, “these regions are fragile (i.e., highly vulnerable to abnormal pressures) not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants.” From this, we can conclude that deserts, mountains, and Arctic regions are ecologically and culturally fragile regions.

6. Wilderness tourism operates throughout the year in fragile areas.

One can refer to lines 15-16 of section A, where the writer mentions, “Consequently, most human activities, including tourism, are limited to quite clearly defined parts of the year.” From these lines, one can conclude that tourism does not operate in fragile regions throughout the year.

7. The spread of tourism in certain hill regions has resulted in a fall in the amount of food produced locally.

Lines 2-8 of section B mention about several farming communities leaving their jobs of farming and shifting their business to pottery making for the tourists. It resulted in a reduction of food produced locally.

8. Traditional food-gathering in desert societies was distributed evenly over the year.

The writer, in lines 11-13 of section B mention about the year-round survival in Arctic and desert societies depend on hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit over a relatively short season. We, from this, can conclude that there is no even distribution of food gathering evenly over the year. 

9. Government handouts do more damage than tourism does to traditional patterns of food-gathering. 

Answer: NOT GIVEN

We find the term “government handouts” in the middle of the second paragraph. However, the passage offers no comparison on whether these handouts are causing more damage to the patterns of food gathering than tourism. 

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Complete the table in one word. 

10. People/ Location:  Swiss Pays d’Enhault

Activity: Received Production of ….

Answer: Cheese 

In section C, one can refer to these lines, where the writer says, “Local concern about the rising number of second home developments in the Swiss Pays d’Enhautresulted in limits being imposed on their growth. There has also been a renaissance in communal cheese production in the area, providing the locals with a reliable source of income that does not depend on outside visitors.” 

11. People/Location: Arctic Communities

Activity: Operate…… business 

Answer: tour/tourist/tourism

One can refer to these lines in section C, where the writer says, “But some Arctic communities are now operating tour businesses themselves, thereby ensuring that the benefits accrue locally.” 

12. People Location: Acoma and San Ildefonso 

Activity: Produce and Sell…..

Answer: Pottery

In the last paragraph of section C, the writer says, “The Acoma and San lldefonso pueblos have established highly profitable pottery businesses,…”

13. People/ Location: Navajo and Hopi 

Activity: Produce and Sell…. 

Answer: Jewelry

The writer, in the last paragraph of section C, says, “…while the Navajo and Hopi groups have been similarly successful with jewelry.” 

We hope this IELTS reading sample gave you an understanding of the exam pattern and format. Solving more such samples will let you prepare better and ace the IELTS reading question and answers. Here's wishing you good luck for your IELTS preparation. 

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IELTS Reading Test 18

The impact of wilderness tourism.

A The market for tourism in remote areas is booming as never before. Countries all across the world are actively promoting their ‘wilderness’ regions – such as mountains, Arctic lands, deserts, small islands and wetlands – to high-spending tourists. The attraction of these areas is obvious: by definition, wilderness tourism requires little or no initial investment. But that does not mean that there is no cost. As the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development recognized, these regions are fragile (i.e. highly vulnerable to abnormal pressures) not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants. The three most significant types of fragile environment in these respects, and also in terms of the proportion of the Earth’s surface they cover, are deserts, mountains and Arctic areas. An important characteristic is their marked seasonality, with harsh conditions prevailing for many months each year. Consequently, most human activities, including tourism, are limited to quite clearly defined parts of the year.

Tourists are drawn to these regions by their natural landscape beauty and the unique cultures of their indigenous people. And poor governments in these isolated areas have welcomed the new breed of ‘adventure tourist’, grateful for the hard currency they bring. For several years now, tourism has been the prime source of foreign exchange in Nepal and Bhutan. Tourism is also a key element in the economies of Arctic zones such as Lapland and Alaska and in desert areas such as Ayers Rock in Australia and Arizona’s Monument Valley.

B Once a location is established as a main tourist destination, the effects on the local community are profound. When hill-farmers, for example, can make more money in a few weeks working as porters for foreign trekkers than they can in a year working in their fields, it is not surprising that many of them give up their farm-work, which is thus left to other members of the family. In some hill-regions, this has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change in the local diet, because there is insufficient labour to maintain terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops. The result has been that many people in these regions have turned to outside supplies of rice and other foods.

In Arctic and desert societies, year-round survival has traditionally depended on hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit over a relatively short season. However, as some inhabitants become involved in tourism, they no longer have time to collect wild food; this has led to increasing dependence on bought food and stores. Tourism is not always the culprit behind such changes. All kinds of wage labour, or government handouts, tend to undermine traditional survival systems. Whatever the cause, the dilemma is always the same: what happens if these new, external sources of income dry up?

The physical impact of visitors is another serious problem associated with the growth in adventure tourism. Much attention has focused on erosion along major trails, but perhaps more important are the deforestation and impacts on water supplies arising from the need to provide tourists with cooked food and hot showers. In both mountains and deserts, slow-growing trees are often the main sources of fuel and water supplies may be limited or vulnerable to degradation through heavy use.

C Stories about the problems of tourism have become legion in the last few years. Yet it does not have to be a problem. Although tourism inevitably affects the region in which it takes place, the costs to these fragile environments and their local cultures can be minimized. Indeed, it can even be a vehicle for reinvigorating local cultures, as has happened with the Sherpas of Nepal’s Khumbu Valley and in some Alpine villages. And a growing number of adventure tourism operators are trying to ensure that their activities benefit the local population and environment over the long term.

In the Swiss Alps, communities have decided that their future depends on integrating tourism more effectively with the local economy. Local concern about the rising number of second home developments in the Swiss Pays d’Enhaut resulted in limits being imposed on their growth. There has also been a renaissance in communal cheese production in the area, providing the locals with a reliable source of income that does not depend on outside visitors.

Many of the Arctic tourist destinations have been exploited by outside companies, who employ transient workers and repatriate most of the profits to their home base. But some Arctic communities are now operating tour businesses themselves, thereby ensuring that the benefits accrue locally. For instance, a native corporation in Alaska, employing local people, is running an air tour from Anchorage to Kotzebue, where tourists eat Arctic food, walk on the tundra and watch local musicians and dancers.

Native people in the desert regions of the American Southwest have followed similar strategies, encouraging tourists to visit their pueblos and reservations to purchase high-quality handicrafts and artwork. The Acoma and San Ildefonso pueblos have established highly profitable pottery businesses, while the Navajo and Hopi groups have been similarly successful with jewellery.

Too many people living in fragile environments have lost control over their economies, their culture and their environment when tourism has penetrated their homelands. Merely restricting tourism cannot be the solution to the imbalance, because people’s desire to see new places will not just disappear. Instead, communities in fragile environments must achieve greater control over tourism ventures in their regions; in order to balance their needs and aspirations with the demands of tourism. A growing number of communities are demonstrating that, with firm communal decision-making, this is possible. The critical question now is whether this can become the norm, rather than the exception.

Questions 1-3

Reading Passage 1 has six paragraphs, A-C.

Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below.

List of Headings i The expansion of international tourism in recent years ii How local communities can balance their own needs with the demands of wilderness tourism iii Fragile regions and the reasons for the expansion of tourism there iv Traditional methods of food-supply in fragile regions v Some of the disruptive effects of wilderness tourism vi The economic benefits of mass tourism

1 Section A 2 Section B 3 Section C

Questions 4-9

Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 4-9 on your answer sheet, write

YES                             if the statement reflects the claims of the writer NO                               if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer NOT GIVEN            if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

4 The low financial cost of setting up wilderness tourism makes it attractive to many countries. 5 Deserts, mountains and Arctic regions are examples of environments that are both ecologically and culturally fragile. 6 Wilderness tourism operates throughout the year in fragile areas. 7 The spread of tourism in certain hill-regions has resulted in a fall in the amount of food produced locally. 8 Traditional food-gathering in desert societies was distributed evenly over the year. 9 Government handouts do more damage than tourism does to traditional patterns of food-gathering.

Questions 10-13 Choose ONE WORD from Reading Passage 1 for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.

The positive ways in which some local communities have responded to tourism

Cambridge IELTS Test 1 to 17

Flawed Beauty: the problem with toughened glass

On 2nd August 1999, a particularly hot day in the town of Cirencester in the UK, a large pane of toughened glass in the roof of a shopping centre at Bishops Walk shattered without warning and fell from its frame. When fragments were analysed by experts at the giant glass manufacturer Pilkington, which had made the pane, they found that minute crystals of nickel sulphide trapped inside the glass had almost certainly caused the failure.

‘The glass industry is aware of the issue,’ says Brian Waldron, chairman of the standards committee at the Glass and Glazing Federation, a British trade association, and standards development officer at Pilkington. But he insists that cases are few and far between. ‘It’s a very rare phenomenon,’ he says.

Others disagree. ‘On average I see about one or two buildings a month suffering from nickel sulphide related failures,’ says Barrie Josie, a consultant engineer involved in the Bishops Walk investigation. Other experts tell of similar experiences. Tony Wilmott of London-based consulting engineers Sandberg, and Simon Armstrong at CIadTech Associates in Hampshire both say they know of hundreds of cases. ‘What you hear is only the tip of the iceberg,’ says Trevor Ford, a glass expert at Resolve Engineering in Brisbane, Queensland. He believes the reason is simple: ‘No-one wants bad press.’

Toughened glass is found everywhere, from cars and bus shelters to the windows, walls and roofs of thousands of buildings around the world. It’s easy to see why. This glass has five times the strength of standard glass, and when it does break it shatters into tiny cubes rather than large, razor-sharp shards. Architects love it because large panels can be bolted together to make transparent walls, and turning it into ceilings and floors is almost as easy.

It is made by heating a sheet of ordinary glass to about 620°C to soften it slightly, allowing its structure to expand, and then cooling it rapidly with jets of cold air.

This causes the outer layer of the pane to contract and solidify before the interior. When the interior finally solidifies and shrinks, it exerts a pull on the outer layer that leaves it in permanent compression and produces a tensile force inside the glass. As cracks propagate best in materials under tension, the compressive force on the surface must be overcome before the pane will break, making it more resistant to cracking.

The problem starts when glass contains nickel sulphide impurities. Trace amounts of nickel and sulphur are usually present in the raw materials used to make glass, and nickel can also be introduced by fragments of nickel alloys falling into the molten glass. As the glass is heated, these atoms react to form tiny crystals of nickel sulphide. Just a tenth of a gram of nickel in the furnace can create up to 50,000 crystals.

These crystals can exist in two forms: a dense form called the alpha phase, which is stable at high temperatures, and a less dense form called the beta phase, which is stable at room temperatures. The high temperatures used in the toughening process convert all the crystals to the dense, compact alpha form. But the subsequent cooling is so rapid that the crystals don’t have time to change back to the beta phase. This leaves unstable alpha crystals in the glass, primed like a coiled spring, ready to revert to the beta phase without warning.

When this happens, the crystals expand by up to 4%. And if they are within the central, tensile region of the pane, the stresses this unleashes can shatter the whole sheet. The time that elapses before failure occurs is unpredictable. It could happen just months after manufacture, or decades later, although if the glass is heated – by sunlight, for example – the process is speeded up. Ironically, says Graham Dodd, of consulting engineers Arup in London, the oldest pane of toughened glass known to have failed due to nickel sulphide inclusions was in Pilkington’s glass research building in Lathom, Lancashire. The pane was 27 years old.

Data showing the scale of the nickel sulphide problem is almost impossible to find. The picture is made more complicated by the fact that these crystals occur in batches. So even if, on average, there is only one inclusion in 7 tonnes of glass, if you experience one nickel sulphide failure in your building, that probably means you’ve got a problem in more than one pane. Josie says that in the last decade he has worked on over 15 buildings with the number of failures into double figures.

One of the worst examples of this is Waterfront Place, which was completed in 1990. Over the following decade the 40 storey Brisbane block suffered a rash of failures. Eighty panes of its toughened glass shattered due to inclusions before experts were finally called in. John Barry, an expert in nickel sulphide contamination at the University of Queensland, analysed every glass pane in the building. Using a studio camera, a photographer went up in a cradle to take photos of every pane. These were scanned under a modified microfiche reader for signs of nickel sulphide crystals. ‘We discovered at least another 120 panes with potentially dangerous inclusions which were then replaced,’ says Barry. ‘It was a very expensive and time-consuming process that took around six months to complete.’ Though the project cost A$1.6 million (nearly £700,000), the alternative – re-cladding the entire building – would have cost ten times as much.

Questions 14-17

Look at the following people and the list of statements below. Match each person with the correct statement. Write the correct letter A-H in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.

14 Brian Waldron 15 Trevor Ford 16 Graham Dodd 17 John Barry

List of Statements A suggests that publicity about nickel sulphide failure has been suppressed B regularly sees cases of nickel sulphide failure C closely examined all the glass in one building D was involved with the construction of Bishops Walk E recommended the rebuilding of Waterfront Place F thinks the benefits of toughened glass are exaggerated G claims that nickel sulphide failure is very unusual H refers to the most extreme case of delayed failure

Questions 18-23

Complete the summary with the list of words A-P below. Write your answers in boxes 18-23 on your answer sheet.

Toughened Glass Toughened glass is favoured by architects because it is much stronger than ordinary glass, and the fragments are not as (18) ……………….. when it breaks. However, it has one disadvantage: it can shatter (19) ……………….. This fault is a result of the manufacturing process. Ordinary glass is first heated, then cooled very (20) ……………….. . The outer layer (21) ……………….. before the inner layer, and the tension between the two layers which is created because of this makes the glass stronger. However, if the glass contains nickel sulphide impurities, crystals of nickel sulphide are formed. These are unstable, and can expand suddenly, particularly if the weather is (22)…………………….. If this happens, the pane of glass may break. The frequency with which such problems occur is (23) ……………….. by glass experts. Furthermore, the crystals cannot be detected without sophisticated equipment.

Questions 24-26

Do the following statements agree with the information given in the passage?

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

24. Little doubt was expressed about the reason for the Bishops Walk accident.

25. Toughened glass has the same appearance as ordinary glass.

26. There is plenty of documented evidence available about the incident of nickel sulphide failure.

The effects of light on plant and animal species

Light is important to organisms for two different reasons. Firstly it is used as a cue for the timing of daily and seasonal rhythms in both plant and animals, and secondly it is used to assist growth in plants.

Breeding in most organisms occurs during a part of the year only, and so a reliable cue is needed to trigger breeding behaviour. Day length is an excellent cue, because it provides a perfectly predictable pattern of change within the year. In the temperate zone in spring, temperatures fluctuate greatly from day to day, but day length increases steadily by a predictable amount. The seasonal impact of day length on physiological responses is called photoperiodism, and the amount of experimental evidence for this phenomenon is considerable. For example, some species of birds’ breeding can be induced even in midwinter simply by increasing day length artificially (Wolfson 1964). Other examples of photoperiodism occur in plants. A short-day plant flowers when the day is less than a certain critical length. A long-day plant flowers after a certain critical day length is exceeded. In both cases the critical day length differs from species to species. Plant which flower after a period of vegetative growth, regardless of photoperiod, are known as day-neutral plants.

Breeding seasons in animals such as birds have evolved to occupy the part of the year in which offspring have the greatest chances of survival. Before the breeding season begins, food reserves must be built up to support the energy cost of reproduction, and to provide for young birds both when they are in the nest and after fledging. Thus many temperate-zone birds use the increasing day lengths in spring as a cue to begin the nesting cycle, because this is a point when adequate food resources will be assured.

The adaptive significance of photoperiodism in plant is also clear. Short-day plant that flower in spring in the temperate zone are adapted to maximising seedling growth during the growing season. Long-day plants are adapted for situations that require fertilization by insects, or a long period of seed ripening. Short-day plant that flower in the autumn in the temperate zone are able to build up food reserves over the growing season and over winter as seeds. Day-neutral plant have an evolutionary advantage when the connection between the favourable period for reproduction and day length is much less certain. For example, desert annuals germinate, flower and seed whenever suitable rainfall occurs, regardless of the day length.

The breeding season of some plants can be delayed to extraordinary lengths. Bamboos are perennial grasses that remain in a vegetative state for many years and then suddenly flower, fruit and die (Evans 1976). Every bamboo of the species Chusquea abietifolio on the island of Jamaica flowered, set seed and died during 1884. The next generation of bamboo flowered and died between 1916 and 1918, which suggests a vegetative cycle of about 31 years. The climatic trigger for this flowering cycle is not-yet known, but the adaptive significance is clear. The simultaneous production of masses of bamboo seeds (in some cases lying 12 to 15 centimetres deep on the ground) is more than all the seed-eating animals can cope with at the time, so that some seeds escape being eaten and grow up to form the next generation (Evans 1976).

The second reason light is important to organisms is that it is essential for photosynthesis. This is the process by which plants use energy from the sun to convert carbon from soil or water into organic material for growth. The rate of photosynthesis in a plant can be measured by calculating the rate of its uptake of carbon. There is a wide range of photosynthetic responses of plants to variations in light intensity. Some plants reach maximal photosynthesis at one-quarter full sunlight, and others, like sugarcane, never reach a maximum, but continue to increase photosynthesis rate as light intensity rises.

Plants in general can be divided into two groups: shade-tolerant species and shade-intolerant species. This classification is commonly used in forestry and horticulture. Shade-tolerant plant have lower photosynthetic rates and hence have lower growth rates than those of shade-intolerant species. Plant species become adapted to living in a certain kind of habitat, and in the process evolve a series of characteristics that prevent them from occupying other habitats. Grime (1966) suggests that light may be one of the major components directing these adaptations. For example, eastern hemlock seedlings are shade-tolerant. They can survive in the forest understorey under very low light levels because they have a low photosynthetic rate.

Questions 27-33

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 27-33 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE                      if the statement agrees with the information FALSE                    if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN         if there is no information on this

27 There is plenty of scientific evidence to support photoperiodism. 28 Some types of bird can be encouraged to breed out of season. 29 Photoperiodism is restricted to certain geographic areas. 30 Desert annuals are examples of long-day plants. 31 Bamboos flower several times during their life cycle. 32 Scientists have yet to determine the cue for Chusquea abietifolia’s seasonal rhythm. 33 Eastern hemlock is a fast-growing plant.

Questions 34-40

Complete the sentences.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 34-40 on your answer sheet.

34 Day length is a useful cue for breeding in areas where …………………………………. are unpredictable. 35 Plants which do not respond to light levels are referred to as ………………………………….. 36 Birds in temperate climates associate longer days with nesting and the availability of …………………………………. 37 Plants that Bower when days are long often depend on …………………………………. to help them reproduce. 38 Desert annuals respond to …………………………………. as a signal for reproduction. 39 There is no limit to the photosynthetic rate in plants such as ………………………………….. 40 Tolerance to shade is one criterion for the …………………………………. of plants in forestry and horticulture.

1. iii 2. v 3. ii 4. yes 5. yes 6. no 7. yes 8. no 9. not given 10. cheese 11. tourism 12. pottery 13. jewellery 14. G 15. A 16. H 17. C 18. sharp 19. unexpectedly 20. quickly 21. contracts 22. warm 23. disputed 24. true 25. not given 26. false 27. true 28. true 29. not given 30. false 31. false 32. true 33. false 34. temperatures 35. day-neutral plants 36. food resources 37. insects 38. suitable rainfall 39. sugarcane 40. classification

Fulfilling Your Dreams

Cambridge IELTS 5 Academic Reading Test 4 Answer key

Cambridge 5 reading test 4 answers, reading passage 1- the impact of wilderness tourism.

The Impact of Wilderness Tourism Reading answers

  • tourism/ tourist/ tour
  • jewellery/ jewelry

Reading passage 2- Flawed Beauty: the problem with toughened glass

Flawed Beauty: the problem with toughened glass Reading Answers

Reading passage 3- The effects of light on plant and animal species

The effects of light on plant and animal species Reading Answers

  • temperatures
  • day-neutral/ day- neutral plants
  • food / food resources/ adequate food/ adequate food resources
  • insects/ fertilizations by insects
  • rainfall/ suitable rainfall
  • classification

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Academic IELTS Reading Test 151 Answers

Dear students, here are the IELTSFever Academic IELTS Reading Practice Test 151 Answers ( Passage 1 The Impact of Wilderness Tourism, Passage 2 Venus in transit, Passage 3 Think Happy )

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Ielts reading – the impact of wilderness tourism, the impact of wilderness tourism.

A The market for tourism in remote areas is booming as never before. Countries all across the world are actively promoting their ‘wilderness’ regions – such as mountains, Arctic lands, deserts, small islands and wetlands – to high-spending tourists. The attraction of these areas is obvious: by definition, wilderness tourism requires little or no initial investment. But that does not mean that there is no cost. As the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development recognized, these regions are fragile (i.e. highly vulnerable to abnormal pressures) not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants. The three most significant types of fragile environment in these respects, and also in terms of the proportion of the Earth’s surface they cover, are deserts, mountains and Arctic areas. An important characteristic is their marked seasonality, with harsh conditions prevailing for many months each year. Consequently, most human activities, including tourism, are limited to quite clearly defined parts of the year. Tourists are drawn to these regions by their natural landscape beauty and the unique cultures of their indigenous people. And poor governments in these isolated areas have welcomed the new breed of ‘adventure tourist’, grateful for the hard currency they bring. For several years now, tourism has been the prime source of foreign exchange in Nepal and Bhutan. Tourism is also a key element in the economies of Arctic zones such as Lapland and Alaska and in desert areas such as Ayers Rock in Australia and Arizona’s Monument Valley.

B Once a location is established as a main tourist destination, the effects on the local community are profound. When hill-farmers, for example, can make more money in a few weeks working as porters for foreign trekkers than they can in a year working in their fields, it is not surprising that many of them give up their farm-work, which is thus left to other members of the family. In some hill-regions, this has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change in the local diet, because there is insufficient labor to maintain terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops. The result has been that many people in these regions have turned to outside supplies of rice and other foods.

In Arctic and desert societies, year-round survival has traditionally depended on hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit over a relatively short season. However, as some inhabitants become involved in tourism, they no longer have time to collect wild food; this has led to increasing dependence on bought food and stores. Tourism is not always the culprit behind such changes. All kinds of wage labor, or government handouts, tend to undermine traditional survival systems. Whatever the cause, the dilemma is always the same: what happens if these new, external sources of income dry up? The physical impact of visitors is another serious problem associated with the growth in adventure tourism. Much attention has focused on erosion along major trails, but perhaps more important are the deforestation and impacts on water supplies arising from the need to provide tourists with cooked food and hot showers. In both mountains and deserts, slow-growing trees are often the main sources of fuel and water supplies may be limited or vulnerable to degradation through heavy use.

C Stories about the problems of tourism have become legion in the last few years. Yet it does not have to be a problem. Although tourism inevitably affects the region in which it takes place, the costs to these fragile environments and their local cultures can be minimized. Indeed, it can even be a vehicle for reinvigorating local cultures, as has happened with the Sherpas of Nepal’s Khumbu Valley and in some Alpine villages. And a growing number of adventure tourism operators are trying to ensure that their activities benefit the local population and environment over the long term. In the Swiss Alps, communities have decided that their future depends on integrating tourism more effectively with the local economy.

Local concern about the rising number of second home developments in the Swiss Pays d’Enhaut resulted in limits being imposed on their growth. There has also been a renaissance in communal cheese production in the area, providing the locals with a reliable source of income that does not depend on outside visitors. Many of the Arctic tourist destinations have been exploited by outside companies, who employ transient workers and repatriate most of the profits to their home base. But some Arctic communities are now operating tour businesses themselves, thereby ensuring that the benefits accrue locally. For instance, a native corporation in Alaska, employing local people, is running an air tour from Anchorage to Kotzebue, where tourists eat Arctic food, walk on the tundra and watch local musicians and dancers. Native people in the desert regions of the American Southwest have followed similar strategies, encouraging tourists to visit their pueblos and reservations to purchase high-quality handicrafts and artwork. The Acoma and San Ildefonso pueblos have established highly profitable pottery businesses, while the Navajo and Hopi groups have been similarly successful with jewellery.

Too many people living in fragile environments have lost control over their economies, their culture and their environment when tourism has penetrated their homelands. Merely restricting tourism cannot be the solution to the imbalance, because people’s desire to see new places will not just disappear. Instead, communities in fragile environments must achieve greater control over tourism ventures in their regions; in order to balance their needs and aspirations with the demands of tourism. A growing number of communities are demonstrating that, with firm communal decision-making, this is possible. The critical question now is whether this can become the norm, rather than the exception.

Questions 1-3 Reading Passage has three paragraphs, A-C . Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below. Write the correct number i-vi in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.

1  Section A    2  Section B    3  Section C

Questions 4-9 Do the following statements reflect the claims of the writer in reading passage?

In boxes 4-9 on your answer sheet, write

YES               if the statement reflects the claims of the writer NO                   if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer NOT GIVEN      if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

4 The low financial cost of setting up wilderness tourism makes it attractive to many countries. 5 Deserts, mountains and Arctic regions are examples of environments that are both ecologically and culturally fragile. 6 Wilderness tourism operates throughout the year in fragile areas. 7 The spread of tourism in certain hill-regions has resulted in a fall in the amount of food produced locally. 8 Traditional food-gathering in desert societies was distributed evenly over the year. 9 Government handouts do more damage than tourism does to traditional patterns of food-gathering.

Questions 10-13 Choose ONE WORD from reading passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.

Answers – Section 1

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The Impact of Wilderness Tourism IELTS Reading With Answers.

The impact of wilderness tourism ielts reading answers.

Reading Passage 1, Questions 1-13

  • tourism/tourist/tour
  • jewellery/jewelry

The Impact of Wilderness Tourism IELTS Reading Answers

The Impact of Wilderness Tourism

A The market for tourism in remote areas is booming as never before. Countries all across the world are actively promoting their ‘wilderness’ regions mountains, Arctic lands, deserts, small islands and wetlands tourists. The attraction of these areas is obvious: by definition, wilderness tourism requires little or no initial investment. But that does not mean that there is no cost. As the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development recognizeu, these regions are fragile (i.e. highly vulnerable to abnormal pressures) not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants. The three most significant types of fragile environment in these respects, and also in terms of the proportion of the Earth’s surface they cover, are deserts, mountains and Arctic areas. An important characteristic is their marked seasonality, with harsh conditions prevailing for many months each year. Consequently, most human activities, including tourism, are limited to quite clearly defined parts of the year. Tourists are drawn to these regions by their natural landscape beauty and the unique cultures of their indigenous people. And poor governments in these isolated areas have welcomed the new breed of ‘adventure tourist’, grateful for the hard currency they bring. For several years now, tourism has been the prime source of foreign exchange in Nepal and Bhutan. Tourism is also a key element in the economies of Arctic zones such as Lapland and Alaska and in desert areas such as Ayers Rock in Australia and Arizona’s Monument Valley. such as to high-spending.

B Once a location is established as a main tourist destination, the effects on the local community are profound. When hill-farmers, for example, can make more money in a few weeks working as porters for foreign trekkers than they can in a year working in their fields, it is not surprising that many of them give up their farm-work, which is thus left to other members of the family. In some hill-regions, this has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change in the local diet, because there is insufficient labour to maintain terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops. The result has been that many people in these regions have turned to outside supplies of rice and other foods. In Arctic and desert societies, year-round survival has traditionally depended on hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit over a relatively short season. However, as some inhabitants become Involved in tourism, they no longer have time to collect wild food; this has led to increasing dependence on bought food and stores. Tourism is not always the culprit behind such changes. All kinds of wage labour, or government handouts, tend to undermine traditional survival systems. Whatever the cause, the dilemma is always the same: what happens if these new, external sources of income dry up? The physical impact of visitors is another serious problem associated with the growth in acdventure tourism. Much attention has focused on erosion along major trails, but perhaps more important are the deforestation and impacts on water supplies arising from the need to provide tourists with cooked food and hot showers. In both mountains and deserts, slow-growing trees are often the main sources of fuel and water supplies may be limited or vulnerable to degradation through heavy use.

Stories about the problems of tourism have become legion in the last few years. Yet it does not have to be a problem. Although tourism inevitably affects the region in which it takes place, the costs to these fragile environments and their local cultures can be minimized. Indeed, it can even be a vehicle for reinvigorating local cultures, as has happened with the Sherpas of Nepal’s Khumbu Valley and in some Alpine villages. And a growing number of adventure tourism operators are trying to ensure that their activities benefit the local population and environment over the long term. In the Swiss Alps, communities have decided that their future depends on integrating tourism more effectively with the local economy. Local concern about the rising number of second home developments in the Swiss Pays d’Enhaut resuited in limits being imposed on their growth. There has also been a renaissance In communal cheese production In the area, providing the locals with a reliable source of income that does not depend on outsicde visitors. Many of the Arctic tourist destinations have been exploited by outside companies, who employ transient workers and repatriate most of the profits to their home base. But some Arctic communities are now operating tour businesses themselves, thereby ensuring that the benefits accrue locally. For instance, a native corporation In Alaska, employing local people, Is running an air tour from Anchorage to Kotzebue, where tourists eat Arctic food, walk on the tundra and watch local musiclans and dancers. Native people in the desert regions of the American Southwest have followed similar strategies, encouraging tourists to visit their pueblos and reservations to purchase high-quality handicrafts and artwork. The Acoma and San lldefonso pueblos have established highly profitable pottery businesses, while the Navajo and Hopi groups have been similarly successful with jewellery. Too many people living in fragile environments have lost control over their economies, their culture and their environment when tourism has penetrated their homelancis. Merely restricting tourism cannot be the solution to the imbalance, because people’s desire to see new places will not just disappear. Instead, communitles in fragile environments must achieve greater control over tourism ventures in their regions, in order to balance their needs and aspirations with the demands of tourism. A growing number of communities are demonstrating that, with firm communal decision-making, this is possible. The critical question now is whether this can become the norm, rather than the exception.

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Need Assitance With IELTS

READING PASSAGE 1 – The Impact of Wilderness Tourism IELTS Reading. You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are hased on Reading Passage 1 on the following pages.

Questions 1-3 Reading Passage I has three sections, A-C. Choose the correct heading for each seetion from the list of headings below. Write the correct number i-vi in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet.

Questions 4-9 – The Impact of Wilderness Tourism IELTS Reading . Do the following statements reflect the opinion of the writer of Reading Passage 1? In boxes 4- 9 on your answer sheet, write. YES if the statement reflects the opinion of the writer NO if the statement contradicts the opinion of the writer NOT GIVEN if it is impossihle to say what the writer thinks about this.

  • The low financial cost of setting up wilderness tourism makes it attractive to many countries.
  • eserts, mountains and Arctic regions are examples of environments that are both ecologically and culturally fragile.
  • Wilderness tourism operates throughout the year in fragile areas.
  • The spread of tourism in certain hill-regions has resulted in a fall in the amount of food produced locally.
  • Traditional food-gathering in desert societies was distributed evenly over the year.
  • Government handouts do more damage than tourism does to traditional patterns of food-gathering.

Questions 10-13 Complete the table below.

The Impact of Wilderness Tourism IELTS Reading Question 10-13

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June 5, 2024

Cambridge IELTS Book 5 – Reading Test 4 Answers With Explanation

Cambridge ielts 5 – test 4 – passage 1.

Questions 1 – 3: Choose the correct heading

=>ANSWER:

Explanation:

i) The expansion of international tourism in recent years Keywords: expansion, international tourism At the beginning of paragraph 1, Section A, the writer says: “The market for tourism in remote areas is booming as never before”. The writer only refers to the expansion of tourism in remote areas, not to international tourism. => Incorrect

ii) How local communities can balance their own needs with the demands of wilderness tourism. Keywords: how, balance, needs, demands, wilderness tourism Section C discusses how to balance the needs of local communities and demands for wilderness tourism. For example: Paragraph 6 states that “Although tourism inevitably affects the region in which it takes place, the cost to these fragile environments and their local cultures can be minimized. Indeed, it can even be a vehicle for reinvigorating local cultures, as has happened with the Sherpas of Nepal’s Khumbu Valley and some Alpine villages.” — minimized: reduced, controlled to an appropriate level or standard. — reinvigorating: strengthening, boosting Then, in paragraphs 7, 8 and 9, the writer continues to discuss strategies, solutions and measures which have been taken in the Swiss Alps, Arctic tourist destinations and American Southwest regions. In paragraph 10, the writer explains: “Merely restricting tourism cannot be the solution to the imbalance, because people’s desire to see new places will not just disappear. Instead, communities in fragile environments must achieve greater control over tourism ventures in their regions, in order to balance their needs and aspirations with the demands of tourism”. => Section C

iii) Fragile regions and the reasons for the expansion of tourism there. Keywords: fragile, reasons, expansion of tourism Paragraph 1 of Section A defines fragile regions as: ” highly vulnerable to abnormal pressure) not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants. The three most significant types of fragile environment in these respects, and also in terms of the proportion of the Earth’s surface they cover, are deserts, mountains and Arctic areas” In paragraph 2 of Section A , the writer explains: “Tourists are drawn to these regions by their natural landscape beauty and the unique cultures of their indigenous people. And poor governments in these isolated areas have welcomed the new breed of “ adventure tourist”, grateful for the hard currency they bring. For several years now, tourism has been the prime source of foreign exchange in Nepal and Bhutan. Tourism is also a key element in the economies of Arctic zones.” => Section A

iv) Traditional methods of food-supply in fragile regions Keywords: traditional methods, food-supply Although in Section B, the writer mentions a little about traditional methods of food-supply as “In Arctic and desert societies, year-round survival has traditionally depended on hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit over a relatively short season”, it is not the main idea of Section B. Section B discusses a lot more about the impacts of tourism on the fragile regions in general and on the traditional methods of food-supply in particular. For example, in paragraph 3 of Section B, the writer argues the effects of tourism on the local community: “Once a location is established as a main tourist destination, the effects on the local community are profound.” And: ” The result has been that many people in these regions have turned to outside supplies of rice and other foods” Paragraph 4 continues to argue that tourism also influences the hunting and collecting habits of the inhabitants “However, as some inhabitants become involved in tourism, they no longer have time to collect wild food; this has led to increasing dependence on bought food and stores”. => Incorrect

v) Some of the disruptive effects of wilderness tourism Keywords: disruptive effects, wilderness tourism — disruptive effects = serious decline in farm output, undermine traditional survival systems, erosion. Section B describes the impacts of wilderness tourism in detail: In paragraph 3 of Section B, the writer says: ” In some hill-regions, this has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change in the local diet because there is insufficient labour to maintain terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops.” In paragraph 4 of Section B, the writer says: “All kinds of wage labour or government handouts, tend to undermine traditional survival systems”. In paragraph 5 of Section B, the writer says: “Much attention has focused on erosion along major trails, but perhaps more important are the deforestation and impacts on water supplies” => Section B

vi) The economic benefits of mass tourism Keywords: benefit, mass tourism — Mass tourism: the act of visiting a destination with large amounts of people at one time. It is not clearly mentioned in Passage 1 that mass tourism can bring about economic benefits to these regions. In Section B, for example, we learn that: “hill-farmers…can make more money in a few weeks working as porters for foreign trekkers than they can in a year working in the fields…” However, as we have already seen from v) above, Section B is mostly about the “disruptive effects” of wilderness tourism. => Incorrect

Questions 4-9: YES/NO/NOT GIVEN

4) The low financial cost of setting up wilderness tourism makes it attractive to many countries

Keywords: low financial cost, wilderness, tourism, attractive In paragraph 1 of Section A, the writer says: “The attraction of these areas is obvious: by definition, wilderness tourism requires little or no initial investment”. low financial cost of setting up = little or no initial investment

=>ANSWER: YES

5) Deserts, mountains and Arctic regions are examples of environments that are both ecologically and culturally fragile.

Keywords: deserts, mountains, Arctic, examples, ecologically, culturally, fragile. In paragraph 1 of Section A, the writer says: “these areas are fragile (i.e. highly vulnerable to abnormal pressures) not just in terms of their ecology, but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants. The three most significant types of fragile environment in these respects, and also in terms of the proportion of the Earth‟s surface they cover, are deserts, mountains and Arctic areas.” — both ecologically and culturally fragile = fragile not just in terms of their ecology but also in terms of the culture

6) Wilderness tourism operates throughout the year in fragile areas.

Keywords: operate, throughout the year, fragile In paragraph 1 of Section A, the writer says: ” Consequently, most human activities, including tourism, are limited to quite clearly defined parts of the year.” — are limited to a quite clear defined parts of the year: only take place in certain months or quarters of the year. So, wilderness tourism does not operate throughout the year in fragile areas.

=>ANSWER: NO

7) The spread of tourism in certain hill-regions has resulted in a fall in the amount of food produced locally.

Keywords: spread, hill-regions, fall, food, produced, locally In paragraph 4, Section B, the writer says: “it is not surprising that they give up their farm-work, which is thus left to others members of the family. In some hill regions, this has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change in the local diet, because there is insufficient labour to maintain terraces and irrigation systems and tend to crops. The result has been that many people in these regions have turned to outside supplies of rice and other foods.” — amount of food = farm output — has resulted in a fall in the amount of food produced locally = has led to a serious decline in farm output and a change in the local diet.

8) Traditional food gathering in desert societies was distributed evenly over the year.

Keywords: traditional, food gathering, desert, distributed, evenly, year In paragraph 4, Section B, the writer says: “In Arctic and desert societies, year-round survival has traditionally depended on hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit over a relatively short season”. — traditional food gathering = hunting animals and fish and collecting fruit —distributed evenly over the year: took place regularly and frequently through the year >< a relatively short season

9) Government handouts do more damage than tourism does to traditional patterns of food-gathering

Keywords: handouts, dangerous, traditional patterns In paragraph 2 of Section B, the writer says: “Tourism is not always the culprit behind such changes. All kinds wage labour, or government handouts, tend to undermine traditional survival systems”. This means that besides tourism, government handouts are also dangerous to traditional survival systems, i.e. the patterns of food-gathering. But the writer does not compare what does more damage to the traditional systems, government handouts or tourism.

=>ANSWER: NOT GIVEN

Questions 10 – 13: Complete the table Choose ONE word from the passage

10) revived production of …

Keywords: Swiss Pays d‟Enhaut, activity, revived, production. Positive ways in which some local communities have responded to tourism. In paragraph 7, Section C, the writer says: “Local concern about the rising number of second home developments in the Swiss Pays “Enhaut resulted in limits being imposed on their growth. There has also been a renaissance in communal cheese production in the area”. — revived production = renaissance in communal cheese production

=>ANSWER: cheese

11) operate … businesses

Keywords: Arctic communities, operate, businesses Section C: But some Arctic communities are now operating tour businesses themselves, thereby ensuring that the benefits accrue locally.

=>ANSWER: tourism/tourist/ tour

12) Produce and sell …

Keywords: Acoma, San Ildefonso, produce, sell In paragraph 9, Section C, the writer says: “The Acoma and San Ildefonso pueblos have established highly profitable pottery businesses, while the Navajo and Hopi groups have been similarly successful with jewellery” — produce and sell = businesses

=>ANSWER: pottery

13) Produce and sell …

Keywords: Navajo and Hopi, produce, sell In paragraph 9, Section C, the writer says: “The Acoma and San Ildefonso pueblos have established highly profitable pottery businesses, while the Navajo and Hopi groups have been similarly successful with jewellery”

=>ANSWER: jewellery/ jewelry

CAMBRIDGE IELTS 5 – TEST 4 – PASSAGE 2

FLAWED BEAUTY: THE PROBLEM WITH TOUGHENED GLASS

Questions 14-17: Look at the following people and the list of statements below. Match each person with the correct statement.

Explanations:

A. SUGGESTS THAT PUBLICITY ABOUT NICKEL SULPHIDE FAILURE HAS BEEN SUPPRESSED.

Keywords: publicity, nickel sulphide failure In paragraph 3, the writer states that “What you hear is only the “tip of the iceberg”, says Trevor Ford, a glass expert at Resolve Engineering in Brisbane, Queensland. He believes the reason is simple: “No-one wants bad press”. — publicity = press — “Tip of the iceberg”: a small part of the big problem. Trevor Ford implied that what the public knew about the nickel sulphide failure was only a small part of the big problem. In other words, Trevor Ford suggests that publicity about nickel sulphide failure has been suppressed or hidden. =>ANSWER 15: A

B. REGULARLY SEES CASES OF NICKEL SULPHIDE FAILURE

Keywords: regularly, see, failure

In paragraph 3, the writer states that: “Others disagree. „On average I see about one or two buildings a month suffering from nickel sulphide related failures,‟ says Barrie Josie, a consultant engineer involved in the Bishops Walk investigation. Other experts tell of similar experiences. Tony Wilmott of London-based consulting engineers Sandberg, and Simon Armstrong at CladTech Associates in Hampshire both say they know of hundreds of cases.” Barrie Josie, Tony Wilmott, Simon Armstrong see some cases of nickel sulphide related failures.

=> incorrect

C. CLOSELY EXAMINED ALL THE GLASS IN ONE BUILDING

Keywords: examined, all, one building

In paragraph 10, the writer says that: “John Barry, an expert in nickel sulphide contamination at the University of Queensland, analysed every glass pane in the building.”

  • examine = analyse
  • all = every

=>ANSWER: 17. C

D. WAS INVOLVED WITH THE CONSTRUCTION OF BISHOP WALK

Keywords: involve, construction, Bishop Walk

In paragraph 3, the writer says that Barrie Josie was a consultant engineer who was involved in the Bishop Walk investigation, not in the construction of Bishop Walk.

E. RECOMMENDED THE REBUILDING OF WATERFRONT PLACE

Keywords: recommend, rebuilding, Waterfront Place

In paragraph 10, the writer says that John Barry analysed every glass pane in the building of Waterfront Place and “discovered at least another 120 panes with potentially dangerous inclusions which were then replaced”. Barry did not recommend the rebuilding of Waterfront Place.

F. THINKS THE BENEFITS OF TOUGHENED GLASS ARE EXAGGERATED.

Keywords: benefits, exaggerated

In paragraph 9, the writer states: “if you experience one nickel sulphide failure in your building, that probably means you’ve got a problem in more than one pane. Josie says that in the last decade he has worked on over 15 buildings with the number of failures into double figures”. So, it is Josie who thinks the benefits of toughened glass are exaggerated, not Brian, Trevor, Graham, John Barry.

G. CLAIMS THAT NICKEL SULPHIDE FAILURE IS VERY UNUSUAL

Keywords: nickel sulphide failure, unusual

In paragraph 2, Brian Waldron “insists that cases are few and far between. “It’s a very rare phenomenon”, he says”.

  • unusual = few and far between/ rare phenonmenon

=>ANSWER: 14.G

H. REFERS TO THE MOST EXTREME CASE OF DELAYED FAILURE

Keywords: extreme case, delayed failure

In paragraph 8, Graham Dodd says, “the oldest pane of toughened glass known to have failed due to nickel sulphide inclusions was in in Pilkington’s glass research building in Lathom, Lancashire. The pane was 27 years old”.

=>ANSWER: 16. H

QUESTIONS 18 -23: COMPLETE THE SUMMARY WITH THE LIST OF WORDS

18 )  toughened glass  is favoured by architects  because  it is  much stronger  than ordinary  glass, and the fragments  are  not as…when it breaks..

Keywords : toughened, architects, stronger, fragments, breaks.

In  paragraph  4,  the  writer  explains:  “Toughened  glass  is  found  everywhere…This  glass  has  five  times  the  strength  of standard glass, and when it does break it shatters into tiny cubes rather than large, razor-sharp shards. Architects love it because large panels can be bolted together to make transparent walls…”

=>ANSWER:    F. sharp

19 ) HOWEVER, IT HAS ONE DISADVANTAGE: IT CAN SHATTER…

Keywords : disadvantage, shatter

In paragraph 7, the writer explains:  “This leaves  unstable alpha crystals  in the glass,  primed like a coiled spring, ready to revert  to  the  beta  phase  without  warning.”

In  paragraph  8,  the  writer  continues:   “When  this  happens,  the  crystals expand…the  stresses  this  releases  can  shatter  the  whole  sheet…The  time  that  elapses  before  failure  occurs  is unpredictable.”

+ unexpectedly = without warning, unpredictable

=>ANSWER:     I. unexpectedly

20 ) ORDINARY GLASS IS FIRST HEALED, THEN COOLED VERY…

Keywords : ordinary, healed, cooled,

In paragraph 5, the writer says how toughened glass is manufactured: “It is made by heating a sheet of ordinary glass to about 620 oC to soften it slightly, allowing its structure to expand,  and then cooling it rapidly with jets of cold air.”

+ quickly = rapidly

=>ANSWER:    C. quickly

21 ) THE OUTER LAYER … BEFORE THE INNER LAYER, AND THE TENSION BETWEEN THE TWO LAYERS WHICH IS CREATED BECAUSE OF THIS MAKES THE GLASS STRONGER.

Keywords : outer layer, before, inner layer.

In paragraph 5, the writer says:  “This causes the outer layer of the pane to contract and solidify before the interior”.

=>ANSWER:    K. contracts

22 ) HOWEVER, IF THE GLASS CONTAINS NICKEL SULPHIDE IMPURITIES, CRYSTALS OF NICKEL SULPHIDE ARE FORMED. THESE ARE UNSTABLE, AND CAN EXPAND SUDDENLY, PARTICULARLY IF THE WEATHER IS…

Keywords : crystals, nickel sulphide, unstable, expand, weather

In paragraph 6, the writer says: “The problem starts when glass contains nickel sulphide impurities. Trace amounts… As the glass is heated, these atoms react to form tiny crystals of nickel sulphide”

=>ANSWER:        E. warm

23 ) THE FREQUENCY WITH WHICH SUCH PROBLEMS OCCUR IS… BY GLASS EXPERTS.

Keywords :  frequency, experts

In paragraph 2, Brian Waldon says:  “it‟s a very rare phenomenon”.

In paragraph 3, Barrie Josie says: “On average I see about one or two buildings a month suffering from nickel sulphide related failures”; Tony Wilmott and Simon Armstrong say they know of hundreds of cases; Trevor Ford says: “what you hear is only the tip of the iceberg”.  These experts, therefore, argue about how common the problem is.

=>ANSWER:     L. disputed

QUESTIONS 24 -26:   TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN

24 ) little doubt was expressed about the reason for the bishops walk accident..

Keywords : little, doubt, reason, Bishops Walk

In paragraph 1, the accident at Bishops Walk shopping centre is mentioned.  The fragments of the glass roof were examined by experts.   “They found that minute crystals of nickel sulphide trapped inside the glass had almost certainly caused the failure”.

+ little doubt = almost certainly

+ reason = caused

=>ANSWER:        TRUE

25 ) TOUGHENED GLASS HAS THE SAME APPEARANCE AS ORDINARY GLASS.

Keywords : toughened glass, same, appearance, ordinary glass

In  paragraph  5,  the  writer  says:  ”  It  is  made  by  the  heating  a  sheet  of  ordinary  glass  to  about  620°C  to  soften  it  slightly, allowing its structure to expand, and then cooling it rapidly with jets of cold air.”

it = toughened glass

So, the writer only mentions the process of manufacturing toughened glass from ordinary glass. There is no information about the comparison of their appearance.

=>ANSWER:      NOT GIVEN

26 ) THERE IS PLENTY OF DOCUMENTED EVIDENCE AVAILABLE ABOUT THE INCIDENCE OF NICKEL SULPHIDE FAILURE.

Keywords : plenty, documented evidence, failure

In paragraph 9, the writer says: “Data showing the scale of the nickel sulphide problem is almost impossible to find. The picture is made more complicated by the fact that these crystals occur in batches.”

+ documented evidence = data

+ incidence = scale

+ plenty of documented evidence available >< almost impossible to find

=>ANSWER:      FALSE

CAMBRIDGE IELTS 5 – TEST 4 – PASSAGE 3

The effect of light on plants and animal species, questions 27-33:   true/false/not given, 27 . there is plenty of scientific evidence to support photoperiodism.

Keywords : plenty, scientific evidence, photoperiodism

In paragraph 2, the writer says: “The seasonal impact of day length on physiological responses is called photoperiodism, the amount of experimental evidence for this phenomenon is considerable.”

scientific evidence = experimental evidence

plenty = considerable

=>ANSWER:         TRUE

28 ) SOME TYPES OF BIRD CAN BE ENCOURAGED TO BREED OUT OF SEASON

Keywords : bird, encouraged, breed out of season

In paragraph 2, the writer says: “For example, some species of birds‟ breeding can be induced even in midwinter simply by increasing day length artificially (Wolfson 1964)”.

+ types = species

+ out of season = even in midwinter

29 ) PHOTOPERIODISM IS RESTRICTED TO CERTAIN GEOGRAPHIC AREAS

Keywords : Photoperiodism, restricted, geographic

In paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 the writer refers to temperate zones – those parts of the world with a temperate climate. However, there is no mention of any geographical restriction of photoperiodism.

30 )  DESERT ANNUALS ARE EXAMPLES OF LONG-DAY PLANTS

Keywords : desert annuals, long-day plants

In  paragraph  4,  the  writer  says:  “Day-neutral  plants  have  an  evolutionary  advantage  when  the  connection  between  the favourable period for reproduction and day length is much less certain. For example, desert annuals germinate, flower and seed whenever suitable rainfall occurs, regardless of the day length” desert annuals are examples of day-neutral plants, not long-day plants.

31 ) BAMBOOS FLOWER SEVERAL TIMES DURING THEIR LIFE CYCLE

Keywords : bamboo, flower, several, life cycle

In  paragraph 5, the writer says:  “Bamboos  are perennial  grasses that  remain in a vegetative state for  many years  and  then suddenly flower, fruit and die” Bamboos flower only once in their life, then die.

=>ANSWER:    FALSE

32 ) SCIENTISTS HAVE YET TO DETERMINE THE CUE FOR CHUSQUEA ABIETIFOLIA’S SEASONAL RHYTHM

Keywords : scientists, Chusquea abietifolia,  cue, seasonal rhythm

In paragraph 5, the writer says: “Every bamboo of the species Chusquea abietifolia …set seed and died during 1884. The next generation of bamboo flowered and died between 1916 and 1918, which suggests a vegetative cycle of about 31 years.

The climatic trigger for this flowering cycle is not yet known, but the adaptive significance is clear. The simultaneous production of masses of bamboo seeds…. is more than all the seed-eating animals can cope with at the time, so that some seeds escape being eaten and grow up to form the next generation (Evans 1976)”.

+ yet to determine = not yet known

+ cue = trigger

+ seasonal rhythm = cycle

=>ANSWER:     TRUE

33 ) EASTERN HEMLOCK IS A FAST GROWING PLANT

Keywords : hemlock, fast growing

In paragraph 7, the writer states: “Shade-tolerant plants have lower photosynthetic rates  and hence have lower growth rates than those of shade-intolerant species”, and “For example, eastern hemlock seedlings are shade-tolerant.”

+ fast growing plant ><have lower growth rates

=>ANSWER:   FALSE

QUESTIONS 34-40: COMPLETE THE SENTENCES.  CHOOSE NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS FROM THE PASSAGE.

34 ) day length is a useful cue for breeding in areas where … are unpredictable.

Keywords : day length, cue, breeding

In paragraph 2, the writer states: “Day length is an excellent cue, because it provides a perfectly predictable pattern of change within  the  year.  In  the  temperate  zone  in  spring,  temperatures  fluctuate  greatly  from  day  to  day,  but  day  length increases steadily by a predictable amount”.

+ unpredictable = fluctuate greatly from day to day

=>ANSWER:   temperatures

35 ) PLANTS WHICH DO NOT RESPOND TO LIGHT LEVELS ARE REFERRED TO AS …

Keywords : plants, not respond, light levels

In paragraph 2, the writer states: “Plants which flower after a period of vegetative growth,  regardless of photoperiod, are known as day-neutral plants”

+ not respond to light levels = regardless of photoperiod

=>ANSWER:   day-neutral plants/day-neutral

36 ) BIRDS IN TEMPERATE CLIMATES ASSOCIATE LONGER DAY WITH NESTING AND THE AVAILABILITY OF …

Keywords : bird, temperate, associate, longer day, nesting, availability

In paragraph 3, the writer states: “Thus many temperate-zone birds use the increasing day lengths in spring as a cue to begin the nesting cycle, because this is a point when adequate food resources will be assured”

birds in temperate climates = temperate-zone birds

=>ANSWER:     food/ food resources/ adequate food/ adequate food resources

37 ) PLANTS THAT FLOWER WHEN DAYS ARE LONG OFTEN DEPEND ON … TO HELP THEM REPRODUCE.

Keywords : plant, long, depend, reproduce

In paragraph 4, the writer states: “Long-day plants are adapted for situations that require fertilization by insects, or a long period of seed ripening”.

=>ANSWER:   insects/ fertilization by insects

38 )  DESERT ANNUALS RESPOND TO … AS A SIGNAL FOR REPRODUCTION.

Keywords: desert annual, signal, reproduction

In  paragraph  4,  the  writer  states:  “Day-neutral  plants  have  an  evolutionary  advantage  when  the  connection  between  the favourable period for reproduction and day length is much less certain. For example, desert annuals germinate, flower and seed whenever suitable rainfall occurs, regardless of the day length”

+ a signal for reproduction = germinate, flower and seed

=>ANSWER:     rainfall/ suitable rainfall

39 ) THERE IS NO LIMIT TO THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC RATE IN PLANTS SUCH AS…

Keywords : no limit, photosynthetic rate

In paragraph 6, the writer states: ” Some plants reach maximum photosynthesis at one quarter full sunlight, and others, like sugarcane, never reach maximum, but continue to increase photosynthesis rate as light intensity rises.”

+ no limit = never reach maximum

=>ANSWER:   sugarcane

40 ) TOLERANCE TO SHADE IS ONE CRITERION FOR THE….OF PLANTS IN FORESTRY AND HORTICULTURE.

Keywords : tolerance to shade, criterion, forestry, horticulture.

In paragraph 7, the  writer states: “Plants in general can be divided into two groups: shade-tolerant species and shade-intolerant species. This classification is commonly used in forestry and horticulture.”

=>ANSWER:     Classification

Check Other CAMBRIDGE IELTS BOOK TEST EXPLANATION

The explaination is collected from Reading IELTS Website.

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impact of wilderness tourism answers

impact of wilderness tourism answers

The Impact Of Wilderness Tourism Reading Answers IELTS

Know about the topic: The Impact of Wilderness Tourism with reading answers. Upgrade your reading skills before taking IELTS Exam.
Definition-

The academic reading passage "The Impact of Wilderness Tourism" was included in an IELTS test. 

These passages are perfect for practice because the IELTS exam includes repeated questions. Try taking an IELTS reading practice exam if you need additional practice.

1 - (iii)- In the opening sentence of Section A, the author discusses how the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development designated some "regions" (wilderness regions), including mountains, Arctic lands, deserts, small islands, and wetlands, as "fragile" (i.e., highly vulnerable to abnormal pressures), not only in terms of their ecology but also in terms of the culture of their inhabitants. Tourists are attracted to these places by their "beautiful natural landscapes and the distinctive traditions of their indigenous people," according to the second paragraph of the same section (reasons for expansion of tourism). Additionally, in these remote locations, the underdeveloped governments "welcomed the new breed of "adventure tourist"," appreciative of the "hard dollar they bring" (reason for tourism).

2 - (v)- The repercussions on the local community are substantial once a location becomes the primary "tourist attraction," according to paragraph 1 of Section B. Sometimes "hill-farmers" make "more money working as porters for foreign hikers" than they "can in a year farming in their fields," according to one study. Many of them "leave up their farm-work" as a result. Due to a lack of labour, this has caused a "severe reduction in agriculture output" and "a change in the local cuisine" in several hill regions. Because of this, "many individuals in these locations have turned to outside supply of rice and other goods," according to the report. The third paragraph also mentions "the physical impact of visitors" as "another important problem" connected to the "increase in tourism."

Conclusion-

To prepare for this exam all you have to do is work hard and gather as many resources as possible. For future information you can visit SpeakoClub and receive a lot of information regarding IELTS.

impact of wilderness tourism answers

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impact of wilderness tourism answers

IELTS NINJA

बंद करने के लिए ESC दबाएँ

Impact of Wilderness Tourism

जंगल पर्यटन का प्रभाव: यह विषय आईईएलटीएस उत्तर पढ़ने के लिए कैसे महत्वपूर्ण है?

IELTS exams i.e., International English Language Test are specially designed to aid you in migrating, studying, or working in an English native region or country. The scores of this test are recognized and accepted by various employers, schools, and government officials in countries like the UK, USA, New Zealand, Australia, and many more.

In this test, your ability to comprehend, listen, write and speak the English language efficiently is graded. IELTS is owned and supported by the IDP IELTS Australia , the British Council, and Cambridge Assessment English. It covers four different sections: Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking.

Another famous English language test is the TOEFL.

How are IELTS and TOEFL Different from Each Other?

IELTS is mainly a multiple-choice exam, whereas the टॉफेल expects answers to various sorts of questions like short answers, essays, and gap fillings. They also differ in the time limit. TOEFL is a four-hour exam, whereas IELTS is a short one with it spanning approximately 2 hours and 40 minutes.

What is IELTS Reading?

IELTS reading answers consist of three to four reading passages, each with an increased difficulty level than the last; reading is the second part of the English test. It is a 60-minute test. The passage is accompanied by several questions and answers that can be found by reading the passage carefully. There are in total 40 questions to answer.

The reading passages aim to test your reading skills and comprehension skills.

About the Topic of the Impact of Wilderness Tourism

‘The impact of wilderness tourism’ is an academic passage that has appeared in the IELTS reading test.

Summary of the passage:

Remote area tourism is gaining a lot of popularity in recent years. It doesn’t require much investment to maintain. However, since the areas like forests, deserts, islands, and more are all part of the natural ecosystem, they are more vulnerable to excess pressure. The natural habitats of the same are suffering.

The tourism in these areas is limited to a few months only due to the harsh conditions they display. Tourists looking for nature and wilderness are the most attracted to these regions. And the countries owning such splendid natural marvels are mostly developing countries, so they welcome such tourists with open arms. This serves as a big source of income for many countries.

This kind of tourism has changed the lives of the habitats living in such areas. Since they find more money in providing services to the tourists rather than farming or working on their fields, they give that up. This affects the food supply as there isn’t enough food grown in the terrains and mountains. So, the people in the region look outside for food supplies.

Another negative impact of wilderness tourists is its impact on the natural flora and fauna of the region. The soil is eroded, and more trees are used up for the tourists. Also, the vulnerable water resources of the region are affected by the same.

However, this need not be bad at all. The damaging effects can always be minimized. People can always look for reinvigorating local societies and cultures. In fact, regions in Nepal and Switzerland have already accepted the fact that tourism is the major source of their income and are incorporating several measures to deal with the ill effects of hosting wilderness tourism in their region.

No matter what, it is still infuriating for some countries and communities to have foreign tourists meddle in their daily way of life. As mentioned above, as some communities are taking steps to control the impact tourists have in their community, it should become a norm everywhere rather than an exception.

बैनर

Questions with Answers

For question 1-3.

Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below,

Write the correct numbers I-VI in boxes 1-3 on your answer sheet

Section A- iii

Section B- v

Section C- ii

Questions 4-9

Do the following sentences reflect the opinion of the writer of Reading Passage?

Yes – If the statement reflects the opinion of the writer

No – If the statement contradicts the opinion of the writer.

Not Given – If it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this.

Q: The low financial cost of setting up wilderness tourism makes it attractive to many countries.

Q: Deserts, mountains, and Arctic regions are examples of environments that are both ecologically and culturally fragile.

Q: Wilderness tourism operates throughout the year in fragile areas.

Q: The spread of tourism in certain hill regions to one-stop has resulted in a fall in the amount of food produced locally.

Q: Traditional food-gathering in desert societies was done evenly over the year.

Q: Government handouts do more damage than tourism does to traditional patterns of food-gathering.

A: Not Given

Questions 10-13

Complete the table below.

Select ONE WORD from Reading Passage for each of the following answers.

The positive ways in which local communities have responded to tourism

To ace, your आईईएलटीएस की तैयारी read as many passages as you can and try to answer the related questions within the time limit. The above passage can also serve as a great source of practice.

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लेखक के बारे में

शिल्पा एक पेशेवर वेब कंटेंट राइटर हैं और उन्हें यात्रा करना बहुत पसंद है। उन्होंने अपनी जनसंचार की डिग्री पूरी की और अब अपने पाठकों को अपने लिए सर्वश्रेष्ठ प्राप्त करने के लिए मार्गदर्शन करने के लिए समर्पित रूप से शब्दों के साथ खेल रही हैं। सफल शोध कार्य से यूपीएससी, आईईएलटीएस उम्मीदवारों के लिए शैक्षिक सामग्री विकसित करना उनकी विशेषता है। अपनी राशि धनु से प्रेरित, शिल्पा अपना जीवन अपने हिसाब से जीना पसंद करती हैं और 'जियो और जीने दो' के विचार से पूरी तरह सहमत हैं। लिखने और यात्रा करने के अलावा, ज्यादातर समय वह अपने पालतू जानवरों और सड़क के कुत्तों के लिए 'हूमैन' माँ के अवतार में देखी जा सकती हैं या फिर आप उन्हें टोके ब्लैंच पहने हुए और सप्ताहांत पर रसोई में जादू करते हुए भी देख सकते हैं।

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Mite Harvestmen Reading Answers

माइट हार्वेस्टमेन उत्तर पढ़ना: आइए आईईएलटीएस मॉक टेस्ट और आईईएलटीएस अभ्यास टेस्ट के साथ तैयारी करें!

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उत्तर पढ़ने वाले चींटियों के नमूने एकत्र करना: आइए आईईएलटीएस परीक्षा में सफल होने की तैयारी करें

IELTS Writing Task 2

जैविक खेती और रासायनिक उर्वरक उत्तर पढ़ना: आइए आईईएलटीएस परीक्षा में अच्छा स्कोर करें!

अन्य कहानियाँ, उत्तर के साथ आईईएलटीएस रीडिंग टेस्ट: आईईएलटीएस में किस प्रकार के प्रश्न आते हैं, डिस्लेक्सिया आईईएलटीएस रीडिंग उत्तर: आईईएलटीएस रीडिंग टेस्ट सेगमेंट पर एक संपूर्ण गाइड.

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COMMENTS

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    Answer. Keywords. 1. (iii) In the first paragraph of Section A, the writer talks about the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development recognized certain ' regions' (wilderness' regions), such as mountains, Arctic lands, deserts, small islands and wetlands, as ' fragile' (i.e. highly vulnerable to abnormal pressures ...

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    IELTS Academic Reading Sample - The Impact of Wilderness Tourism. You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13, which are based on the Reading Passage below. Questions 1-3. The Reading Passage has three paragraphs, A-C. Choose the correct heading for each section from the list of headings below. Write the correct number i-vi in boxes 1-3 ...

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  17. IELTS Reading Sample

    The Impact of Wilderness Tourism. A. The market for tourism in remote areas is booming as never before. Countries all across the world are actively promoting their 'wilderness' regions - such as mountains, Arctic lands, deserts, small islands and wetlands - to high-spending tourists.

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  22. Impact of Wilderness Tourism: How is this Topic Important for IELTS

    It is a 60-minute test. The passage is accompanied by several questions and answers that can be found by reading the passage carefully. There are in total 40 questions to answer. The reading passages aim to test your reading skills and comprehension skills. About the Topic of the Impact of Wilderness Tourism

  23. Reading Practice

    The Impact of Wilderness Tourism A The market for tourism In remote areas is booming as never before. Countries ail across the world are actively promoting their 'wilderness' regions - such as mountains, Arctic lands, deserts, small islands and wetlands - to high-spending tourists. The attraction of