Top 10 Hospitality Careers: Job Descriptions and Salary Ranges

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Working in hospitality means cultivating unforgettable experiences for people all over the globe. In the U.S. alone, tourists spent $3 billion every day in 2018, according to the U.S. Travel Association. This included both business and leisure spending –– on travel and lodging, sightseeing, entertainment, and food and beverage. While certain holidays and vacation weeks tend to draw the biggest crowds, tourism remains a year-round industry. Many businesses in the tourism and hospitality industry operate all day, every day for the entirety of the year.

When the hospitality and tourism industries move forward from the COVID-19 pandemic, there will continue to be a demand for careers in the field. To pursue these opportunities with confidence, individuals would do well to equip themselves with a degree in tourism and hospitality management, like one of UCF Online’s hospitality degrees . Tourism and hospitality management degrees prepare students to enter a variety of hospitality careers. Graduates can advance their careers at exciting venues that include hotels, cruise ships, amusement parks, catering halls, casinos, restaurants, and more. Managing those businesses takes a special blend of skills, knowledge, and expertise, which individuals can develop with the right degree. What positions can graduates pursue? Read on to find out.

Jump Into an Exciting Career in Hospitality

There are many careers one can get into with a degree in hotel and tourism management. Here are 10 terrific options that could lead you to exciting careers throughout the country, and even abroad.

Hotel Manager Careers

Every hotel wants their guests to have a perfect stay. The hotel manager’s job is to make sure that happens and to fix any issues that arise when it doesn’t. Hotel managers need to be big-picture problem-solvers who can think quickly on their feet, keep a level head when dealing with difficult customers and situations, and motivate their employees to reach and maintain high standards. Hotel managers oversee the operations of facilities from smaller boutique inns through mega-destination resorts, with their job duties determined by the size of the hotel and staff.

Not only do hotel managers train and oversee staff, but they are often responsible for booking large groups and events, ensuring that catering operations run smoothly, and stay on top of maintenance and cleaning. In larger hotels and resorts, different managers might split these duties, each overseeing a specific department.

Restaurant Manager Careers

While chefs might receive much of the attention for the work they do in the kitchen, restaurant managers ensure that those chefs have supplies, support, and guests to serve. Restaurant managers are usually responsible for training and staffing the restaurant, creating budgets and marketing, ordering new equipment, and handling large parties or reservations. In some restaurants, they may even be in charge of menu changes and food ordering. Restaurant managers often work long hours, communicate clearly with patrons, co-workers, and suppliers, and use their eye for detail to meet the specific demands of a fast-paced industry.

Events Manager Careers

The best events managers are so good at their jobs, nobody knows they are there. Their job is to plan and facilitate large events, ensuring that the attendees enjoy the event as much as possible. Events include concerts, conventions, weddings, bar and bat mitzvahs, parades, and charity balls. Event managers might be self-employed entrepreneurs, work for hotels and resorts, or within municipalities and local governments. Planning events on such a scale can require a team of planning specialists, all under the direction of the events manager. They meet with clients to create a vision for the event, then work with vendors, venues, catering staff, entertainers, and others to make the event come to life. This intricate job includes obtaining permits for use of public space, working with caterers to feed hundreds or thousands of people, arrange entertainment, facilitate staffing, sales, and marketing. If all goes to plan, the event runs smoothly, and the manager can enjoy the satisfaction of their clients having an unforgettable time.

Casino Manager Careers

Casino work presents a fun and interesting challenge in the world of hospitality careers. Casinos can be loud, energetic?, and full of activity, with tables and slot machines running around the clock. They are often connected to hotels and resorts which include multiple restaurants, retail outlets, and entertainment venues. Casino managers are responsible for the operations of the casino itself, including the games and employees that work the floor. It’s their job to have a thorough knowledge of customer demand for different gaming options, adjusting constantly to maximize both consumer enjoyment as well as profits. They are also responsible for hiring and training employees, including dealers, waitstaff, shift supervisors, and pit bosses. In a business with so much money changing hands, casino managers need to be especially vigilant of all moving parts.

Cruise Director Careers

This is a career where you’ll definitely need your sea legs. Cruise directors serve on cruise ships, where it’s their job to oversee the entertainment operations onboard. Modern cruise ships can serve upwards of four or five thousand people in a single trip, many of whom will spend a lot of time onboard, enjoying all that the ship offers by way of food and entertainment. Cruises often feature musicians and stage acts, and have established casinos, sports facilities, arcades, pools, lounges, restaurants, and bars. When cruises stop at ports of call, customers often go on excursions, exploring the local attractions. Cruise directors must have detailed knowledge of each port, making sure they can point clients towards fun and safe onshore activities. These hospitality professionals set the schedule of activities, evaluate their success, and make changes to the cruise’s entertainment choices to maximize enjoyment while staying on budget.

Executive Chef Careers

Chefs and cooks who want to advance in their careers can pursue a hospitality degree to earn an executive chef position. Executive chefs, in short, run the kitchen. While chefs are responsible solely for cooking high-quality food, executive chefs also manage all kitchen staff. Their duties include making hiring and firing decisions, staying on top of food ordering and costs, setting menu prices, making changes to the menu, and determining daily specials. Executive chefs must have years of culinary training and on-the-job experience, and typically also have a bachelor’s degree in culinary arts or hospitality. Education is especially important for chefs who want to work at a high-end or Michelin-starred restaurant, where they put their learned skills in management and operations to work. UCF Online’s Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management can help chefs develop the leadership skills necessary for this position. Working as an executive chef means working long hours, including nights and weekends, in a fast-paced environment. For those who thrive in such an environment, the job can also be quite financially and emotionally rewarding.

Food and Beverage Director Careers

Large restaurants, or hotels and resorts with restaurants, offer many careers in hospitality, like food and beverage directors. Professionals in this position collaborate with restaurant managers and executive chefs. Food and beverage directors order ingredients and supplies, and monitor costs and expenditures. They work with chefs to create menus, ensuring the restaurant can keep a creative focus while also staying realistic about budget, costs, and menu prices. They also oversee food preparation and storage, ensuring that their restaurant is compliant with health and safety codes. At some establishments, food and beverage directors also work with bartenders and liquor distributors to create and showcase on-trend drinks, helping to maximize profits while keeping patrons excited about their options.

Director of Catering Careers

Catering exists at the intersection of cooking and event planning. Directors of Catering must plan to feed large groups of people simultaneously, overseeing a staff that’s capable of producing hundreds — if not thousands — of meals during a single event. Catering directors must have an in-depth understanding of food costs and be able to estimate food consumption based on factors like the size of the group and the duration of the event. They have an understanding of bulk purchasing, preparation times, storage availability, food costs, and cook times. By accounting for these many factors, they help to eliminate waste and maximize profits.

Attractions Manager Careers

All over the globe, tourist attractions draw crowds. People gather at amusement parks, landmarks, historical sites, and monuments to learn, celebrate, or simply take in the sight. Attractions managers run operations that enhance visitors’ experiences. At a national park, for example, the attractions manager might oversee staffing and park ranger training, control crowd size and flow, and oversee safety operations. At a historical site, they are often responsible for overseeing educators, managing budgets, interacting with the media, and working with local businesses to promote events. Attractions managers are energetic multi-taskers who thrive on creating great visitor experiences while tending to the needs and considerations of their staff.

Social Media Strategist Careers

Social media strategists are pivotal in every industry in today’s hyper-connected world. Roles like this one are increasingly important in travel and hospitality, as more and more people research and book their accommodations online. Social media strategists promote their clients (whether a resort, a tour company, a hotel, or other business) online, connecting them with viable customers and determining the best ways to appeal to them through social channels. In order to build a social media following, these digitally savvy hospitality experts might create promotions and develop online-exclusive deals. In the modern world, the right social media strategy helps businesses thrive, and the social media strategist is a key part of that. Earning the right skills in digital marketing and development through a certificate like UCF Online’s Hospitality and Tourism Technologies Certificate program offers aspiring social media strategists in the hospitality industry a deep understanding of digital marketing.

Average Pay for Hospitality Careers

Almost all hospitality careers pay a median salary of around $50,000, though some can bring in as much as $100,000 per year. How much you earn may vary depending on the job itself, your level of experience, and even your geographic region.

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports on the median annual salary of a few specific careers within the hospitality industry, as of May 2018. Based on these reports, chefs earn approximately $48,460 annually, food service managers earn $54,240, lodging managers earn $53,390, and meeting and event planners earn about $49,370. reports that the average annual salary for casino managers is $102,494, the highest number in the group. PayScale also maintains annual salary data for food and beverage directors ($67,216), catering directors ($59,685), cruise directors ($57,676), social media strategists ($51,869), and attractions managers ($42,979).

Get Started With an Online Hospitality Degree from UCF

All of these careers can put you in a fast-paced, rewarding position that allows you to make people’s lives more enjoyable while putting to use your communication, collaborative, and organizational skills. One of UCF Online’s hospitality degrees , such as our new online Bachelor of Science in Restaurant & Foodservice Management , Bachelor of Science in Senior Living Management , or Master of Science in Hospitality and Tourism Management , can open up possibilities in the field, and help you land the job you want.

Online Hospitality Degrees at UCF

  • Destination Marketing and Management
  • Event Leadership, MS
  • Event Management
  • Event Management, BS
  • Financial Management for the Hospitality and Tourism Industry
  • Hospitality and Tourism Management, MS
  • Hospitality and Tourism Technologies
  • Hospitality Management, BS
  • Leadership and Strategy in Hospitality and Tourism
  • Lifestyle Community Management, BS
  • Lodging and Restaurant Management, BS
  • Travel Technology and Analytics, MS

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What to Know About Hospitality and Tourism Management Degree Programs

Hospitality management degrees are designed to train future leaders in the hospitality industry.

How to Study Hospitality Management

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Running a company in any segment of the hospitality industry requires not only financial and marketing prowess, but also an understanding of how to create an inviting environment for guests.

The art and science of hosting strangers is an essential skill for people working in many kinds of businesses, including airlines, casinos, cruise ships, festivals, hotels and restaurants.

Running a company in any segment of the hospitality industry requires not only financial and marketing prowess, but also an understanding of how to create an inviting environment for guests. Cultivating that marketable skill set is the goal of associate, bachelor's and graduate programs in hospitality management.

What a Hospitality Management Degree Is and What Classes It Requires

The goal of any course of study in hospitality management is to train people to create and maintain spaces where others will immediately feel at home.

“Understanding how to take care of the customer is a foundational aspect of the hospitality discipline,” Angela Ramsey, senior director of communication at the University of Nevada—Las Vegas William F. Harrah College of Hospitality, explained in an email.

Hospitality management degrees are, foremost, degrees in business, says Michael Sabitoni, chair of the food and beverage management department and the international travel and tourism studies department at Johnson & Wales University in Rhode Island. They include classes in accounting, finance, human resources, law and technology, he says.

However, unlike a general business degree, a hospitality degree typically includes specialized coursework focusing on the hospitality industry, such as classes on food service business operations, event management principles, and hotel and resort leadership, Sabitoni says. An overview class about tourism is also typically included in hospitality management programs, and industry internships are often mandatory, he adds.

Many hospitality degree programs require students to participate in experiential learning by helping to operate a student-run hotel or restaurant. They may also contain classes on:

  • Eco-tourism or sustainable travel
  • Global tourism and special considerations involved with international trips
  • Customer service protocols
  • Assessing the quality of guest experiences
  • Specific types of hospitality establishments, such as country clubs, golf courses, resorts, stadiums, timeshares or theme parks
  • Nuances involved in planning certain kinds of events, such as conventions or weddings
  • Concerns that face certain demographics of customers, including women and people of color
  • Various types of tourism, including business trips and visits to cultural destinations or historical sites

Top Undergraduate Schools With Hospitality Management Majors

Many U.S. colleges and universities allow undergraduates to major in hospitality management, including multiple nationally renowned academic institutions. Cornell University of New York, an Ivy League college, has a school devoted to hospitality.

Exceptional hospitality programs are often based in major metropolitan areas that attract significant tourism. For example, New York University and Boston University in Massachusetts offer a hospitality management degree.

How to Know if a Hospitality Management Degree Is Right for You

An interest in the food and beverage sector, a love for travel or an interest in entertaining people may lead someone to consider pursuing a degree in hospitality management. But prospective students should be aware that the hospitality sector has leadership roles for people with all kinds of interests and personalities.

Though some managerial positions in the hospitality industry are customer-facing jobs that require significant people skills, there are also back-of-the-house managerial jobs that concentrate on logistics, Sabitoni says.

Significant cultural awareness and strong communication abilities are essential in hospitality. Foreign language skills are also valuable but not mandatory, Sabitoni says.

What You Can Do With a Hospitality Management Degree

Hospitality programs are designed to train future leaders in the sector.

“It can include anything within the hospitality vertical, from hotel investment companies to real estate firms to our big brands which are the Marriotts, the Hiltons, the Four Seasons, to data analytics companies to Googles to Amazons,” says Kate Walsh, dean of the Peter and Stephanie Nolan School of Hotel Administration at Cornell. “Anything that touches hospitality as a part of their business product is something where our students get involved.”

Real estate investment firms often invest in hotel buildings, so people with degrees in hospitality management sometimes find jobs in the real estate sector, Walsh says. Alumni of hospitality management programs sometimes become management consultants who concentrate on assisting companies in the hospitality industry, she adds.

Executive and director roles in the industry typically require at least a bachelor's degree. Many high-level leadership positions at U.S. hospitality firms pay annual salaries above $70,000, according to an article published by, a job website.

In 2020, graduates of Cornell's Nolan School had an average base salary of slightly over $69,000 and an average bonus of nearly $15,000, according to the school's employment report .

Considerations for Potential Hospitality Students

Aspiring hospitality managers should be aware of trends that may affect them when they enter the industry, experts say.

This sector has severe labor shortages at hotels and restaurants, many of which laid off workers due to pandemic-related safety measures and now have struggled to replace those workers even after raising wages.

Because of these staffing concerns, many hospitality companies have introduced initiatives to recruit and retain talented staff, improve working conditions, increase job satisfaction and reduce employee turnover, Walsh says.

When comparing hospitality programs, prospective students should investigate whether those programs include experiential learning opportunities, experts say, noting that hands-on projects are one of the best ways to gain hospitality skills. It’s also optimal if hospitality schools offer courses on design, which can inform aesthetic choices about how a hospitality venue looks, according to experts.

“I think the industry needs innovative thinkers," Walsh says. "They need people who think big culturally, who are comfortable with different modes of work, so it’s a great time to join the industry. The industry is trying to be extremely intentional in providing compelling career paths.”

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What Are the Best Careers in Hospitality and Tourism? The Top Jobs for Master’s Graduates

hospitality tourism jobs best careers masters

Whether you enjoy staying at luxurious hotels, traveling to beautiful places, attending interesting events, eating at delicious restaurants or trying out unique activities, like ecotourism , there are plenty of reasons to be passionate about the world of hospitality and tourism.

In fact, some people are so drawn to hospitality and tourism that they pursue a career path in the industry, which boasts a wide range of job opportunities, plenty of room for growth and an overall promising future.

Speaking with four faculty members from the online Master of Science in Hospitality and Tourism (MSHT) program at USC Bovard College , we learned about growing employment options, the skills needed to succeed in the industry and what to expect post-pandemic.

What Jobs Can You Get with a Degree in Hospitality and Tourism?

With a master’s degree in hospitality and tourism, you can work in restaurants, hotels, spas, theme parks, bars and more. From there, roles exist in food and beverage, event planning, management, social media, marketing, finances, housekeeping, tour operation and other areas.

The industry is so pervasive that there are always new opportunities, said John Bowen , MSHT professor and KYC Hospitality advisor.

Bowen highlighted hotel development itself as an expanding sector, emphasizing the possibilities available in atypical locations, such as senior living homes and universities, where professionals are recruited to make the spaces comfortable and welcoming for residents.

“One of the things I really like about this industry is if you don’t like what you’re doing now, there’s going to be a position that will be more what you like, depending on what your interests are. Whether it be the financial and numbers side, or the dealing with people side, or the food side, or the destinations side,” he told USC Online.

For those who are more into the research side of the business, data analytics might be the ideal path, according to MSHT professor Suzanne Szanyi .

“We do a lot of work in understanding where bookings come from, where we should be marketing, who we should target on social media, how exactly people are finding out about our properties,” said Szanyi. “Figuring out that kind of info and digging into customer analytics is a big thing right now. How do we find out more about the people who stay at the properties, who go on the cruise ships, who eat at the restaurants? What do we do with that information to give them a better experience and encourage them to come back?”

Another burgeoning sector within hospitality is the casino and gaming resort industry, where MSHT professor and Graduate Hotels Managing Director Michael Mathis  has spent 20 years of his career.

“These multi-use resorts have so many opportunities, different positions, and the ability to grow within from housekeeping or the front desk,” Mathis said. “You’ve got facilities teams, which are all different levels of engineers. We have a graphics marketing team as well as a database marketing team. There’s senior management and really seasoned security people who know how to look out for counterfeiters, fraud prevention and so on.”

Event planning is also a key driver of revenue and growth — conferences, meetings, festivals, sporting events, fashion shows and exhibitions attract tourists to destinations around the world.

“You can use [the MSHT] almost anywhere in any business. Every business has an element of tourism and hospitality.” – Andrea Daniels

Whether you’re interested in tackling larger, corporate events or planning personal celebrations like weddings, event tourism is a multi-billion-dollar industry that continues to recruit talent versed in management and leadership, both of which are highlighted in the MSHT program.

Unique and Unexpected Career Opportunities

Of course, there are many jobs that come to mind when people think of hospitality and tourism: property manager, travel agent, marketing associate. But there are plenty of roles that might not be as obvious.

One commonly overlooked sector in the hospitality industry is hospitals.

“In hotels, we always say, ‘heads and beds,’ and it’s the same process with hospitals. We want to make sure we have room for demand, and we want people to be cared for, to be comfortable. A lot of what we do in hospital guest services can be overlooked,” Szanyi said.

Another in-demand career path that has gained traction in the past few years is sustainable tourism development, which focuses on creating a balance between the environment, local communities and the economy.

Positions include becoming a sustainable business advisor — guiding travel organizations on eco-friendly practices and ethical compensation — and environmental consultants — helping governments and businesses improve issues surrounding water pollution, air quality and wildlife protection.

And thanks to the pandemic, more and more travelers are prioritizing outdoor activities and longer, more immersive vacations, leading to a heightened awareness and respect for nature and indigenous communities.

“Adventurous holidays and outdoorsy relaxation retreats are trending. Ecotourism, nature tourism and even volunteer tourism, like beach cleanups, are starting to grow … Other outdoor activities, such as hiking and horseback riding are booming,” MSHT professor Diana C. Beltran told USC Bovard College in April.

To meet this growing demand for sustainable tourism practices, the MSHT curriculum places a heavy focus on sustainability, addressing everything from socially responsible event planning to sustainable development projects.Overall, a master’s in hospitality and tourism prepares you to work in a myriad of fields. You can take those event planning, management, marketing and guest services skills and apply them to businesses and organizations worldwide.

“Open up your eyes to see the possibilities available in the space. This degree is not limited. You can use it almost anywhere in any business. Every business has an element of tourism and hospitality,” said Andrea Daniels , MSHT professor and distribution strategy director for IHG Hotels & Resorts .

Across industries, leaders are focusing not only on recruiting impressive talent, but also on retaining them, according to Daniels. Pillars of that retention model include internal development, succession planning and growth opportunities.

“We’re always looking for individuals with advanced degrees who can help chart that course. So much of hospitality and tourism is about customer service, so having someone with that background can really set the culture of service for the company,” Daniels said.

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What Skills Do You Need in the Hospitality and Tourism Field?

The most important trait to have in the hospitality and tourism industry, our experts emphasized, is passion. If you’re driven to provide an excellent customer experience, you’ll thrive in the field, whether you’re creating culinary masterpieces, crunching numbers or laying the groundwork for new a hotel.

“Once you find the aspect of [hospitality and tourism] that drives you and makes you happy, you’ll succeed,” Bowen said.

Motivation and hard work, however, are also crucial to advancing your career, Mathis added.

“I would say for all students getting their master’s degrees to find opportunities to really learn the business from the ground up, and marry that with all the great training and theoretical work that we’re doing in the classroom. Go out there and truly experience it,” he emphasized.

With skill, knowledge and drive, the MSHT program prepares students to become leaders in their chosen professions, imparting confidence and innovative practice that will serve them throughout the rest of their careers.

A Post-Pandemic Future

It’s no secret that the world of hospitality and tourism was severely shaken by the COVID-19 pandemic , as travel became restricted, restaurants and hotels closed, airlines shut down and in-person events were canceled.

While the idea of a vacation or a night out at a favorite restaurant used to seem like a distant fantasy, the industry has made great strides to return to its pre-lockdown success.

“The one thing with this industry is we always bounce back. Go back to 9/11, and we all thought that there’s no coming back from this. The industry was directly threatened, and it was a threat to people’s safety to travel. But we bounced back, like we always bounce back. It might not come back like it was before, but we have the ability to evolve. We almost acquire new ways of doing things, new ways to service guests. The best time to get in is when it’s down and we start innovating,” Daniels said.

Of course, change has already occurred — thanks to technological advances, a larger emphasis has been placed on creating custom guest experiences, noted Szanyi. That includes virtual booking assistance, communication apps and online concierge services tailored to their preferences.

And while the rise in technology can seem like a threat to the job force, it also creates new career paths in and of itself.

“Many jobs in this field will be done by robots, so there’s going to have to be somebody who understands how to program these robots, how to work the interface and teach human employees to work with robotic workers. These different areas of technology are bringing opportunities for people,” Bowen said.

Learn more about the  online MS in Hospitality and Tourism program  at USC Bovard College today.

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15 Hospitality and Tourism Management Career Options

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15 Hospitality and Tourism Management Career Options: Not a day goes by that we hear information on COVID-19 impact on hospitality businesses . Yet the hospitality and travel industry is all set up to start again too with flying colors. There are a number of hotel management aspirants who want to kick start their career in hospitality management . The industry is faced with challenges but with the new tech in, the hospitality sector is expected to outnumber other sectors in a few years. The hospitality, travel and tourism industry is a sea that engages many careers. From being a food and beverage manager on a high-end cruise line to orchestrating a top sound music festival. In an industry that is constantly growing and evolving to new trends, why not jump on board and explore the options? Let us check what are the top trending 15 hospitality and tourism management career options.

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15 Hospitality and Tourism Management Career Options

Career Comparison: Chef vs Food & Beverage Manager Hotel Management vs Travel and Tourism Management

Hospitality and Tourism Management Career Options

According to the World Tourism Organization UNWTO, the hospitality industry is responsible for one out of every eleven jobs worldwide. That is it is the world’s largest employer. Owing to the continuous growth of this service-oriented, high-energy and productivity- driven hospitality and tourism industry, there is a high demand for skilled labor. The tourism education in India contributes to the growth too. Here are few options candidates can opt for making a career in the hospitality and tourism sector.

Hospitality Jobs in the Food and Beverage Industry

There are a number of career opportunities in the food and beverage services .The food and beverage industry is divided into two major segments: production and the distribution of edible goods. In terms of hospitality, food and beverage occupations can be found in settings such as restaurants, breweries, event centers, and more. Even there are a number of hotels that offer high packages to hotel management graduates . In regards of food and beverage sector, below are the jobs you can go for:

1. Restaurant Manager – To ensure the restaurant is operating efficiently, restaurant managers can be hired to oversee a variety of restaurant types – from local taverns to high-end restaurants and fine-dining establishments specializing in international cuisine

2. Catering Assistant – A catering assistant may work directly for a catering company, in-house at a restaurant, or at a hotel to arrange bookings, oversee production and more.

3. Sous Chef – Another job pertaining to the food and beverage industry is that of a sous chef, which is a second-in-command role within a kitchen. To be successful it is necessary that a sous chef has all the required chef skills and qualifications . A sous chef reports to the head chef and oversees various meal preparations and kitchen operations.

Hospitality Jobs in Tourism Management

One aspect of tourism is hospitality management that provides diverse opportunities for recent graduates. Job roles such as a cruise ship director and flight attendant can take you around the world, but if you prefer a hospitality career that has a consistent home base, below are three relevant suggestions:

4. Travel Agent – A travel agent will research and plan trips for individuals, couples, and groups. This process may entail finding hotels, booking excursions and sharing deals on flights.

5. Tour Guide – Tour guides prepare itineraries and offer private or public tours of popular towns, museums, historical sights or other areas of interest. Tour guides often have extensive knowledge on individual locales and are able to answer questions that pertain to their specific tour.

6. Marketing and Public Relations – A career in marketing and PR can be connected to both hospitality and tourism based upon the needs of the industry. Marketing and Public Relations are important to a destination because a positive name in the press can impact the number of people traveling to a touristy town, hotel or other sightseeing area.

Hospitality Jobs in Event Planning

Event planning is another key area of hospitality that involves hands-on organization and interaction. Traits of successful professionals with jobs in event planning may include being flexible, working within a budget, and having a propensity for multitasking.

7. In-House Event Planner – Event planners can be involved in every aspect of an event, including booking clients, having regular meetings, problem solving event details, and arranging the post-event clean-up.

8. Conference Organizer – These types of organizers can be hired in-house by a venue to arrange seating, keynote speaker necessities, day-of itineraries and more for a conference, trade show, expo or other event.

9. Bridal Consultant – Bridal consultants, or wedding planners, can be hired to oversee multiple aspects of a wedding and reception, from assistance in finding a venue to creating seating charts. These consultants may have versatile day-to-day schedules.

Hospitality Jobs in the Entertainment and Leisure Industries

The entertainment and leisure industries can perhaps be tangled with some of those already mentioned above. So, how does one get a job in leisure and tourism? Some jobs that both sectors may be looking to employ include:

10. Casino Host – Casino hosts work with a casino to ensure customer satisfaction. Some of the day-to-day duties of these hosts may include getting to know regular customers and offering various incentives to ensure their casino experience is positive and that they return.

11. Spa Director – Spas can contribute to leisure and relaxation for guests around the world. Spa directors may oversee scheduling and appointments, maintain inventory and more.

12. Theme Park Manager – Theme parks come with more than just rides and roller coasters, thus making it essential to have managers keeping them up and running. These employees can book shows, plan promotional events and more.

Hospitality Jobs in Guest Relations

Guest relations is a customer-service oriented sector for those who like to interact and work with people. These careers can be found in many different industries, although they are primarily seen within hotel management.

13. Front Office Manager – Front office managers can have many day-to-day duties, including overseeing employees, maintaining guest accounts, coordinating hotel sales and more.

14. Directors of Housekeeping – Commonly seen in hotels, directors of housekeeping can be expected to oversee the cleanliness and appearances of the hotel, control labor costs, and maintain supplies, among other related responsibilities.

15. Sommelier – Sommeliers can be hired within high-end hotels or restaurants as experts of fine wine. They may be able to recommend wine and food pairings, help chefs create up-to-date wine listings for their establishment, or promote wine-based events.

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

The hospitality field covers the entire service industry that includes lodging, food and drink service, event planning, theme parks, and transportation. It includes hotels, restaurants and bars.

Hospitality management is a detailed study of the hospitality and hotel industry. A hospitality manager looks after the administrative tasks of a resort, hotel and casino chain. He or she may ensure that a hotel is adhering to state regulations.

The starting salary is not much for hospitality graduates. It mostly ranges from Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 20,000. However with years of experience the salary is bound to increase.

 The various employment opportunities are Marketing/Sales, Human Resources, General Management of a restaurant or hotel, Accounting, Economics, Cost Control, Operations Management, Cruise Ship Hotel management and Club management.

Marketing and Public Relations are important to a destination because a positive name in the press can impact the number of people traveling to a touristy town, hotel or other sightseeing area. 

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Questions related to NCHM JEE

Hello Aspirant,

For different sections, books of NCHM JEE are enlisted below :-

@English Language

Arihant General English for all Competitive Examinations (English) by Hari Mohan Prashad

Pearson’s English

High School English Grammar & Composition Revised Edition (English) 1st Edition by Wren and Martin

@Numerical Ability & Scientific Aptitude

Quantitative Aptitude by RS Aggarwal

Quantitative Aptitude by N.K. Singh

Quantitative Aptitude by Arihant

S Chand’s 30 days wonder for Maths

@Reasoning & Logical Deduction

Verbal Reasoning Book by R S Agarwal

Quantitative Aptitude ebook (ALL Parts Solved) by R S Agarwal

Verbal and Non-Verbal Reasoning by RS Aggarwal

501 Challenging Logical reasoning Practice Book

@Service Sector Aptitude

Arihant - The ultimate guide for Hotel Management

R Gupta’s book for Hotel Management

@General Knowledge & Current affairs

Pratiyogita Darpan

Manorama Yearbook

Lucent’s GK

Pearson India Yearbook

Arihant General Knowledge

For more details kindly check out the link given below :-

NCHMCT JEE Books 2022- Subject-wise Best Books for NCHM JEE Preparation (

I hope this information helps you.

Good Luck!!

Dear Student ,

IHM Lucknow , better can say Institute of Hotel Management, Catering Technology and Applied Nutrition, Lucknow is a public college under Ministry of tourism , Govt of India .

It was established in 1969 . Total 19 faculty currently works here .

The following courses is offered here :

  • B.Sc Hospitality and Hotel Administration
  • Diploma in Bakery and Confectionery
  • Diploma in Food and Beverage Service
  • Diploma in Food Production
  • M.Sc Hospitality and Hotel Administration

Facilities : Hostel, Library, Guest Room etc. facilities are available there

To know more about the courses, refer this :

Hope this helps !

National Testing Agency (NTA) will release the NCHM JEE 2022 admit card in online mode tentatively in the first week of June 2022 on the official website, Visit the official website of NCHM JEE, Click on the ‘NCHM JEE 2022 admit card’ tab. Enter your application number and date of birth. NCHMCT JEE 2022 admit card will appear on the screen. Download the admit card and take multiple printouts of the same for future reference. Keep an eye on the official website for the latest information.

Hi aspirant....!

Hope you're doing great...!

So, in response to your question. NCHMCT (National Center for Health Metrics and Technology ( NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR HOTEL MANAGEMENT AND CATERING TECHNOLOGY). The examination must be completed in the month of May. However, due to unforeseen circumstances, it has been postponed till June 18th, 2022. The admission cards are expected to be released in May. They did not however, they will release them. They will create an account for you on their official website. Please keep yourself up to date.

Hope this will helps you...!


Hello aspirant,

Below I am sharing some of the best for Msc Hotel Management Preparation which will he best for Entrance exam ;

Manorama Yearbook 2021 Lucent's GK

Verbal Reasoning Book

Quantitative Aptitude ebook (ALL Parts Solved)

Verbal and Non-Verbal Reasoning

And many more.

Further, if you wish to know more about the \list of books for Hotel Management entrance exam, then you can follow the below mentioned link to know more :

I hope that this will help.

Explore Career Options (By Industry)

  • Food and Beverage
  • Hospitality

Food Scientist

A career as a food scientist requires working full-time in the laboratory. He or she analyses data, works on computer programmes, and monitors the processors involved in food production. He or she examines raw materials and surroundings to detect problems. A food scientist is employed in research universities, government agencies, departments, and private entities such as food production facilities in order to do research work in terms of studying food production, storage, and transportation facilities. 

Food Inspector

A career as a food inspector comes with the responsibility to ensure the food is healthy for human consumption. A food inspector inspects the food processing entities, manufacturing companies, restaurants, and dairy farms to collect samples for investigating the quality of food ingredients and preservatives being used in the food product to be sold in the market. Continue reading to learn everything you need to know about how to become a food inspector.

Food Engineer

A Food Engineer is a professional who is responsible for processing, packaging, and improving food products. He or she either works in the agricultural or food processing industry holding the responsibility of ensuring higher quality of food products including safety, supply, nutrition, and value. 

Food Technologist

Food technologists are responsible for developing healthy and safe food. They ensure the food being produced is hygienic and tastes the finished product. A Food technologist's career requires working in product development and with food product suppliers. This study is a blend of principles of management, science, and marketing to produce or develop quality and hygienic food. 

Family Social Worker

In a career as family social worker, an individual help those people who grow up in dysfunctional families and suffer from mild to extreme dysfunction. Some people are able to overcome the obstacles that childhood brought them and have a positive impact on the future. This negative behavior brings great pressure on family members. Sometimes they need help to learn how to deal with certain family situations or problems faced on a personal level. Individuals who opt for a career as family social worker can help restore harmony by providing services to families in crisis.

Cooking careers come up with great opportunities as there is huge job growth in the hospitality industry. A chef's workplace includes hotels, casinos, resorts, restaurants and all those places where people dine and lodge. Hospitals, schools, corporate facilities and municipal cafeterias also require the services of chefs for their customers such as patients, students, and employees. 

Linguistic meaning is related to language or Linguistics which is the study of languages. A career as a linguistic meaning, a profession that is based on the scientific study of language, and it's a very broad field with many specialities. Famous linguists work in academia, researching and teaching different areas of language, such as phonetics (sounds), syntax (word order) and semantics (meaning). 

Other researchers focus on specialities like computational linguistics, which seeks to better match human and computer language capacities, or applied linguistics, which is concerned with improving language education. Still, others work as language experts for the government, advertising companies, dictionary publishers and various other private enterprises. Some might work from home as freelance linguists. Philologist, phonologist, and dialectician are some of Linguist synonym. Linguists can study French , German , Italian . 

Event Manager

The roles of event manager can vary depending on the company and industry he or she works in. Generally, in a career as an event manager, an individual is responsible for planning, organising, managing, and coordinating various types of events. Also, he or she coordinates meetings with clients to determine details about events. The application of the event manager career path to the creation and development of large-scale events such as festivals, conferences, ceremonies, weddings, formal parties, concerts, or conventions is known as event management. 

Travel Agent

To become a travel agent one does not require a degree. One can master the skills and gather knowledge about the travel industry and become a travel agent. Individuals who opt for a career as a travel agent are involved in planning trips for their clients in their day-to-day life. Travel agents stay updated about the hospitality and travel industry. The agents generally receive 10-15 per cent commissions from accommodations, transport companies, and on the attraction of coordination for transport bookings. 

It saves time to book a hotel or plan and make arrangements for a trip through a travel agent. Those interested in pursuing a career as a travel agent should study various travel agent courses, such as travel and tourism or hospitality and travel . They stay aware of the schedules of airlines, fare prices and charges on hotel bookings. Individuals in travel agent careers make travel arrangements as per the client's requirements and budget.

Food Stylist

A food stylist is a culinary art specialist who is responsible for making the food look arranged in a presentable way decked up with accessories for a close shot. He or she works with chefs, photographers and editors.

Are you searching for a bartender job description? Individuals who opt for a career as a bartender are hospitality professionals who work at bars. He or she is responsible for mixing and serving drinks to customers. Students can pursue an M.H.M.C.T. (Master of Hotel Management and Catering Technology) Course to opt for a bartender career in India. A bartender is proficient in creating alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages as per the preference of customers. 

Catering Manager

Do you know who is a catering manager? You must have attended events, parties and other functions where you have been served delicious food. In larger organisations, catering managers have managerial and supervisory roles to administer various catering functions and outlets. 

Station Master

Travel journalist.

The career of a travel journalist is full of passion, excitement and responsibility. Journalism as a career could be challenging at times, but if you're someone who has been genuinely enthusiastic about all this, then it is the best decision for you. Travel journalism jobs are all about insightful, artfully written, informative narratives designed to cover the travel industry. Travel Journalist is someone who explores, gathers and presents information as a news article.

Travel Planner

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  • Your career guide: hospitality and tourism management jobs

Your Career Guide: Hospitality and Tourism Management Jobs

Are you se­eking a dynamic, globally oriented care­er that offers diverse­ opportunities? Do you have a passion for connecting with pe­ople from around the world and providing exce­ptional guest experience­s? If so, let’s look at the­ exciting array of jobs available in hospitality management.

This section of the industry offers a wide range of role­s that are both fulfilling and extremely rewarding, catering to travel e­nthusiasts while creating opportunities for individuals who take pride in delivering unforge­ttable customer expe­riences. In this guide, we’ll look at a wide range of different hospitality and tourism jobs that you can aim for.

Hospitality and tourism management jobs

Exploring caree­rs in hospitality and tourism management means e­ntering a dynamic field that is constantly evolving and e­mbracing innovation. These roles e­ncompass a range of duties in a variety of sectors, such as hotel administration, eve­nt planning, airline operations, and travel operations. Additionally, there are­ opportunities to work in tourism destinations that include national parks or he­ritage sites.

Many people­ are drawn to careers in hospitality manage­ment because no two days are ever the same. Each day can bring new and exciting challenge­s, whether it’s making strategic busine­ss decisions for a hotel chain or coordinating logistics for high-profile e­vents like concerts or inte­rnational conferences. The­ key to success in this field is be­ing adaptable, having a knack for problem-solving, and being comfortable­ navigating through changing circumstances. These qualitie­s can greatly benefit individuals in the­se challenging but fascinating positions.

If you have a passion for pre­serving natural beauty and the historical significance­ of destinations, working in tourism management can be­ fulfilling. Positions in this area go beyond simply organizing holidays. The­y involve aspects of conservation, e­ducation, and cross-cultural engagement to cre­ate enriching expe­riences for travele­rs while engaging with local communities through sustainable­ practices. You can access these interesting careers by getting a degree in hospitality as a starting place.

Get started on the journey of your life

Intro – Embrace everything the world of tourism and hospitality has to offer with our degree that blends teaching, real-world learning and opportunities to build your professional network.

career in tourism and hospitality

Types of hospitality and tourism management jobs

Types of hospitality and tourism management jobs

RossHelen/ istock via Getty Images

Hospitality and tourism management offers an incredible range­ of opportunities. Whether you e­njoy working directly with customers or prefe­r managing operations behind the sce­nes, there is some­thing for everyone in this industry.

Front office roles

You should never unde­restimate the significance­ of front office roles, as they are­ commonly regarded as the public face­ of any establishment in the hospitality industry. The­se hospitality professionals can range from a rece­ptionist to a front office manager. Usually involved in dire­ct customer service, the­se roles serve­ as an excellent starting point for individuals who e­njoy interacting with people and finding solutions to proble­ms. If deriving satisfaction from ensuring client happine­ss is something that brings you joy, then pursuing a caree­r in front office roles in hotel management might be­ ideal for you.

Food service management

Food se­rvice management encompasses a huge range of options, depending on the establishment and what kind of dining experiences it offers. Roles could range from ove­rseeing operations at a pre­stigious five-star restaurant to efficie­ntly managing fast food chains. For individuals with a passion for all things culinary, these positions offer ample­ opportunities for creativity and gastronomic exploration.

Event planning

Another e­xciting career path to consider with a hospitality de­gree is joining the ranks of event planners. If the idea of organizing and coordinating special events such as weddings, concerts or grand inte­rnational conferences appe­als to you, then becoming an event planne­r might be the perfe­ct fit for your passion.

Accommodation management

Accommodation management plays a crucial role in the­ realm of hospitality. This ever-changing department is devote­d to ensuring that guests enjoy a comfortable­ and unforgettable stay. Accommodation managers are­ key figures be­hind the scenes, coordinating an array of se­rvices that elevate­ a mere place to sle­ep into a welcoming home away from home­. They are responsible­ for maintaining impeccable cleanline­ss standards, and meticulously monitoring every detail of an establishment to create­ an environment that is inviting and spotless.

General manager

In hospitality management, the position of ge­neral manager (GM) is highly respected. This role e­ncompasses oversee­ing day to day operations in all kinds of establishments, ranging from ultra luxury hotels to tourism offices. General manage­rs bear the responsibility of ste­ering the organization towards success by making strategic de­cisions and ensuring smooth functioning across all aspects of the busine­ss. For individuals who possess strong leadership abilitie­s and are passionate about business, a care­er as a general manage­r offers a platform to demonstrate their manage­rial skills and drive growth.

Revenue manager

In the comple­x arena of revenue­ management , professionals are­ responsible for maximizing an organization’s income. This vital role­ spans across various industry sectors, from hotels to travel operations and restaurants. Revenue manage­rs leverage the­ir analytical expertise to craft pricing strate­gies, oversee­ inventory management, and optimize­ profits. For individuals who thrive on data analysis and possess a kee­n interest in understanding consume­r behavior, a career as a re­venue manager promise­s an intellectually stimulating path towards ensuring a busine­ss’s financial success.

Marketing manager

The role of marketing manager is a challenging one that encompasses creativity and strategy. Marketing managers are responsible for crafting and executing marketing campaigns that resonate with target audiences. They may work in different areas of hospitality, including travel, hotels or events. These professionals devise innovative strategies, manage budgets, and collaborate with creative teams to build brand awareness and drive sales. For individuals who possess a flair for storytelling and a strategic mindset, a career as a marketing manager provides an avenue to shape a brand’s identity and influence consumer perceptions.

Food and beverage manager

In the re­alm of cuisine and hospitality, the role of food and be­verage (F&B) management is extremely important. Sometimes called restaurant managers, the­se individuals are responsible­ for overseeing e­very aspect of dining in restaurants, hote­ls, or resorts. From meticulously crafting enticing me­nus to effectively managing staff and guarante­eing exceptional se­rvice, food and beverage­ managers possess a dee­p knowledge of the culinary arts and an unwavering commitme­nt to excellence­. Their ultimate goal is to create­ unforgettable dining expe­riences that uphold an e­stablishment’s estee­med reputation, working with the kitchen staff and executive chefs to ensure every aspect is perfect.

Qualifications and skills required for hospitality and tourism management jobs

Starting a caree­r in hospitality and tourism management demands more­ than just a love for the service­ industry. It requires specific qualifications and skills. Whe­ther you’re intere­sted in hotel manageme­nt or broader roles within the se­ctor, it’s crucial to know these prere­quisites.

Educational qualifications

Obtaining the appropriate­ educational qualifications is a key step in pursuing hospitality and tourism manageme­nt careers. Ideally, e­mployers seek candidate­s with hospitality management degrees­ or diplomas in hospitality or tourism management. Study in this field e­quips individuals with comprehensive knowle­dge about various aspects of the industry, such as operations, marke­ting strategies, eve­nt planning, and cost control.

Contrary to the common be­lief that vocational training is sufficient for ente­ring the hospitality sector, pursuing a university-le­vel education can greatly e­nhance your prospects. Having a master’s de­gree in hospitality management can be particularly advantage­ous if you are aspiring for high-level managerial positions or if you want to specialize­ further within the field. Additionally, some­ jobseekers e­ven pursue doctoral studies to contribute­ scholarly research and enrich the­ domain.

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career in tourism and hospitality

Essential soft skills

Specific soft skills are integral when considering what you can do with a degree in hospitality management.

  • Customer service: The customer-centric nature of the hospitality industry necessitates exemplary service delivery.
  • Interpersonal skills: Working effectively with clients, suppliers, colleagues requires excellent interpersonal communication.
  • Problem-solving skills: Unplanned hiccups occur frequently in this fluid environment where problem–solving expertise matters.
  • Leadership abilities: Effective leadership abilities help navigate team dynamics efficiently while ensuring strategic goals receive appropriate attention.
  • Multi-tasking capacity : You should excel at managing multiple tasks simultaneously without compromising on quality.

Building careers in hospitality requires certain elements as a foundation, which is usually an appropriate academic background aligned with developed core competencies for tackling inherent challenges.

Career paths in hospitality and tourism management

If you have a passion for trave­l, enjoy meeting ne­w people, and value e­xceptional customer service­, a care­er in hospitality or tourism management could deliver lasting rewards. This fie­ld offers countless fascinating possibilitie­s. You may be wondering what can be done­ with a degree in hospitality. The­ truth is, that it opens doors to a wide range of opportunitie­s that could take you anywhere in the world.

Starting a caree­r in hotel management is a promising path to pursue­. Many individuals begin their journey in entry positions and work their way up to becoming hotel managers as they gradually gain e­xperience and e­xpertise. As they progre­ss, they have the opportunity to advance­ into higher positions within the company, such as regional manage­r or even exe­cutive roles.

If you have a passion for cre­ating memorable expe­riences, a caree­r as an event manager might be­ the perfect fit. Whe­ther you choose to work within hotels and re­sorts or independently, e­vent managers take charge­ of organizing everything from corporate confe­rences to lavish we­ddings. It’s a role that allows your creativity to shine while­ making lasting memories for others.

A caree­r in the travel industry can be promising for individuals with the necessary skills. Trave­l consultants, for instance, offe­r opportunities to create me­ticulous itineraries and cater to the le­isure-related re­quirements of clients. Effe­ctive communication plays a crucial role in this field. Additionally, the­re are cruise ship dire­ctors who ensure an enjoyable­ guest experience ­ for passengers while at sea. This role demands a combination of e­xceptional entertainme­nt abilities and logistical planning skills.

Tour operators  also play a vital role­ in the tourism industry. They help plan and deliver trave­l itineraries and cater to adventurous spirits se­eking to explore various parts of the­ world.

What is the highest paying job in tourism?

Within hospitality and tourism management, there­ are many lucrative caree­r paths available. One notable option is that of re­sort manager, which can come with an attractive­ salary package. These profe­ssionals undertake a range of re­sponsibilities, such as oversee­ing customer service, managing facility mainte­nance, and supervising staff membe­rs to ensure an outstanding expe­rience for all guests.

Another important role­ in the tourism industry is that of tourism directors. These­ professionals are responsible­ for making strategic decisions and overse­eing initiatives for tourist destinations or tourism de­partments. Their responsibilitie­s include managing marketing campaigns, budgeting, maintaining re­lationships with stakeholders, and fostering partne­rships within the community to enhance the­ appeal of their region or organization.

Another  highly profitable care­er option is that of a tourism consultant. In this role, you provide e­xpert advice to companies looking to e­nhance their position in the tourism industry, whe­ther on a national or global scale.

Lastly, high salaries are­ commanded by executive­ positions such as chief executive office­rs (CEOs) or general managers (GMs) of hote­l chains. These­ individuals hold leadership roles in highly compe­titive industries.

Salary variations exist in the­ hospitality industry due to factors such as company policies, the size­ of operations, and the location of the job. Urban and tourist-ce­ntric areas generally offe­r higher compensation compared to smalle­r towns. Prospective professionals in this fie­ld should conduct comprehensive re­search to ensure the­y make informed caree­r decisions.

The fie­ld of hospitality and tourism management offers an e­xciting range of career opportunitie­s. It’s a dynamic choice that guarantees growth and constant challe­nges. A degree­ in hospitality opens doors to various roles in hotel manage­ment, travel agencie­s, event coordination, and eve­n the running bed-and-bre­akfast establishments.

Pursuing this career path can offer lucrative­ income opportunities. By demonstrating de­dication, a commitment to ongoing learning, providing exce­ptional service, and showcasing strong leade­rship skills, there is the potential to asce­nd to high-earning hospitality careers in prestigious resorts or othe­r managerial roles. Get started today with Glion, or read more about the many compelling reasons to work in hospitality .

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career in tourism and hospitality


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15 Hospitality and Tourism Management Career Options

There is more to it than meets the eye. The tourism and hospitality industry is an umbrella covering a sea of fun and engaging careers, from being a food and beverage manager on a high-end cruise line to orchestrating a top sound music festival. In an industry that is constantly growing and evolving to new trends, why not jump on board and explore the options? Hospitality and tourism career opportunities await!

Careers to Consider when Studying Tourism and Hospitality Management

The travel & tourism industry makes up 9.8 % of global GDP, and it’s still growing. Responsible for one out of every eleven jobs worldwide, the industry is the world’s largest employer according to the World Tourism Organization UNWTO. Every day, a new idea is hatched, big investment firms sign off on the designs of a five-star luxury resort or some mom and pop diner opens its doors. Having doubled in numbers over the past twenty years, the tourist population is set to expand two-fold yet again over the next twenty. The increasing numbers are only a reflection of a budding middle class.

Nearly unaffected by the economic crisis a few years back, this industry is resilient, and it adapts to the demands of the consumer. From tours to cocktails the industry is constantly transforming itself to be bigger and better.

Owing to the continuous growth of this service-oriented, high-energy and productivity- driven hospitality and tourism industry, there is a high demand for skilled labor. The sector itself, according to experts in the field, will have difficulties finding enough qualified talent for the forecasted 80 million jobs yet to be generated over the next ten years according to the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) . Hospitality and tourism career opportunities will abound all around the world from Honolulu to St. Petersburg.

Doesn't this sound exciting? There is no better time to explore opportunities in hospitality and tourism industry, get involved and advance your career.

Hospitality and Tourism Careers List

Hotel operations, 1. banquet & conferences.

A demanding, yet high energy career working in hotels, resorts and conference centers setting up rooms and servicing events. If you enjoy seeing an event executed from the initial planning stages through to its end, this may be for you. From organizing a 500-guest NGO Gala to raise awareness for humanity aid to political receptions and corporate holiday parties, your clientele is always changing, creating a unique environment that is never boring.

Study Tourism and Hospitality to a career in Hotel


Responsible for all things related to food and beverage from ordering products to hiring staff and balancing profit and loss sheets. The career requires exceptional social and analytical skills. The ideal candidate is organized, calm under pressure, service oriented and business minded.


From the very first moment of a guest’s arrival, the front office serves as the face of the company and its standards of service. Knowledgeable not only about the products they offer, these individuals are friendly, customer service oriented and can give insights on the surround area.


Oversee all operations departments from the front desk and security to housekeeping and food and beverage. Responsible for the overall success of the facility, this is a very diverse position that manages a wide variety of people. A strong leader, that is both service oriented and business savvy, will exceed in this management role.


A dynamic position leading a team of employees servicing food and beverage. A day in the life of a restaurant manager can go from tasting wines with different distributors to bussing tables on a busy night. Also responsible for the overall function of the operation, inventory, ordering and budgeting often top the list of a manager’s to-do list.


Responsible for the day-to-day operations of a health or beauty spa. Based on the size of the operation the position can be customer service focused or more business based, handling all the marketing, schedules, and training.

Event Management

7. concerts, festivals & exhibitions.

Event planning and project management dealing with large scale events. This role involves studying the brand, identifying the target audience, devising the event concept and coordinating all the technical aspects before launching or hosting an event.

Study Hospitality Management to wedding coordination


It all comes down to the details and building relationships. Brides want to have confidence in their wedding coordinator and in doing so, this individual needs to be extremely organized and love executing special events with many moving components, balancing a need for both structure and creativity in the workplace. A rewarding career for the right individual, making lasting memories.

Other Areas

9. airlines.

Jump on board and travel the world as a flight attendant. Manage the inflight services taking care of food and beverage, duty free and other customer service requests. Upon landing you are in a new location, traversing the globe on a regular basis.


Make every child’s eyes light up. Manage the overall operations as a member of the leadership team or be ready to welcome amusement park goers behind the desk selling tickets, supervising a food and beverage outlet or controlling the rides themselves.


The gaming service industry is huge and jobs are typically found in casinos or at the racetrack. Someone interested in this career may work as a dealer, slot machine attendant, pit boss or an overall operations manager dealing with the activities, in addition to any lounges or food and beverage outlets offered to the players.


A mash up of sales, project management and food and beverage, this is a fun and vigorous career. Whether you’re a chef creating the menu or coordinator organizing the vendors, this position is constantly on-the-go fielding queries and giving instructions. A great position incorporating sales with event planning.

Study Tourism to a career in Cruises


Head out to sea. Very similar to a hotel, but you are floating from port to port. Work in sales, food and beverage, housekeeping, maintenance or security. Maybe you strive to be the big boss, in which case there are a lot of moving parts to oversee 24 hours a day.


Work for a firm or start your own business, this career requires a base of experience in order to advise your clients. Whether in hotels, restaurants or travel, becoming an expert in your trade will allow you to give the soundest guidance.


The sky is the limit. Whatever you dream you can create. From opening a restaurant in Miami to offering sightseeing tours of the Vatican in Rome, there is no end to the possibilities in the tourism and hospitality industry. With a little ingenuity, good business sense and creative genius you can start a company of your own and scale to great magnitudes.

Do you think you have what it takes? Employers are looking for competent individuals with both knowledge and experience in the trade. Studying for a MA in Tourism & Hospitality Management in Barcelona offers advanced insights into the tourism industry and provides students with the opportunity to develop their knowledge and interests within the field, in one of the most exciting and charismatic, tourist destinations in Spain and in Europe – Barcelona!

We pride ourselves on diversity. Our students do not only come from 60+ countries from around the globe, but our faculty comes from near and far, from the Dominican Republic and Peru to Switzerland and the UK and many places in between.

The students who graduate with a Master’s in Tourism and Hospitality Management from GBSB Global Business School in Barcelona benefit from the large variety of internship opportunities in the tourism and hospitality industry in the city. Recently, we have placed students with the Renaissance, Hosco and eDreams, to name a few.

Ever since Barcelona hosted the Olympic Games in 1992, the city has experienced a steady growth in tourist numbers. Barcelona offers a fantastic hotel infrastructure, highly developed tourism services and a ton of programs and events to promote the city as a truly global tourist destination. Study in Europe in English at GBSB and graduate with a Master’s degree in Tourism and Hospitality Management, giving you the leading edge in an industry waiting for you.

By Emily Dawn Szajda, GBSB Content Manager

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career in tourism and hospitality

The tourism and hospitality career progression pathway

International Hospitality Review

ISSN : 2516-8142

Article publication date: 22 July 2022

Issue publication date: 25 March 2024

The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive investigation into declining and emerging occupations and job titles and to develop a national career progression pathway for the tourism and hospitality (T&H) sector.


Anchored on the Social Cognitive Career Theory, this study used face to face in-depth interviews of 33 industry stakeholders: policymakers, trade association, training providers and beneficiaries (T&H).

The finding reveals that only the “watchman” occupation was identified as the declining job while majority of the emerging jobs were more related to information technology and environmental occupations (website designers, digital marketers, data analysts, hygienists, and safety and hazard experts).

Practical implications

The findings provide a valuable signal for the growing number of jobs in security services, hygiene and information technology-oriented occupations, which the Ministry of Tourism, Arts and Culture including practitioners including HR directors and general managers should respond timely to and to these growing needs in order to remain competitive in the sector.


This is the first study in context that responded to a call by industry players to fill in a practical knowledge gap in examining declining and emerging jobs and job titles in the T&H sector. The study provides vocational insights into mapping the entry level requirements for the jobs allied with occupations in the national technical and vocational educational training qualifications framework of Ghana at the national level.

  • Career progression pathway
  • Declining occupation
  • Emerging occupation
  • Social cognitive career theory
  • Tourism and hospitality

Preko, A. and Anyigba, H. (2024), "The tourism and hospitality career progression pathway", International Hospitality Review , Vol. 38 No. 1, pp. 54-80.

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022, Alexander Preko and Hod Anyigba

Published in International Hospitality Review . Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at


A career development path provides employees with an ongoing mechanism to enhance their skills and knowledge that can lead to mastery of their current jobs, promotions and transfers to new or different positions – Society of Human Resource Management ( SHRM, 2017 , p. 12).

Employability and career development in the tourism and hospitality (T&H) industry has become the key focus for researchers and practitioners, particularly for hotels, restaurants, amusement parks, cruises, events, casinos, parks, entertainment and other tourism-related services ( Calinaud, Kokkranikal, & Gebbels, 2021 ). To this end, employers in the hospitality and tourism sector are directing efforts toward recruiting and selecting industry-specific talents and candidates for jobs in the sector to avert underperformance and turnover rates ( Aicher, Buning, & Newland, 2020 ; Calinaud et al. , 2021 ; Cassel, Thulemark, & Duncan, 2018 ). The barriers to career development in the T&H industry and hence their mobility in the industry are evident, and have been in the apparent frame of attention ( Cassel et al. , 2018 ). For example, Cassel et al. (2018) noted that in Sweden, the supply of labour and supply of competence are critical issues facing the sector. Similarly, due to the industry's poor reputation for good jobs, attracting and retaining staff worldwide has always been a challenge ( Barron, Maxwell, Broadbridge, & Ogden, 2007 ; Baum, 2015 ). Mobility in the T&H industry is particularly alarming because the education levels in the sector are low, the entrance barriers are relatively low compared to other industries, renumerations are low, and it is quite easy to change jobs in the sector because most jobs are mostly temporary, and sometimes seasonal ( Hemdi & Nasurdin, 2006 ). These staff mobility problems pose serious challenges to career development and overall growth of the sector. A few studies have attempted to address the mobility, turnover and career pathway problems in the T&H industry. These studies, however, have largely been conducted in advanced economy contexts (see: Cassel et al. , 2018 ; Chang & Tse, 2015 ), with set limitations in terms of methodology, theory and scope. This issue presents an apparent evidence gap and practice–knowledge gap. A different study context, such as a developing country context, presents a rare opportunity to investigate career pathways pertinent to the local T&H industry.

According to TIME's 2021 world's greatest places list, Accra (capital of Ghana) is the Number 1 destination in Africa for tourists ( Oluwole, 2022 ). In spite of this gain, Ghana's T&H industry has faced major challenges of fragmented and uncoordinated career pathway progressions that undermine the development of the sector. This suggests the inability of the T&H sector to comprehensively define the occupations in the industry. For example, Ghanaian graduates who enter the T&H labor market are not perfectly aligned and suited to the requirements of the labor market. The T&H labor market, as it is today, is having growth problems. A resource constrained post-COVID-19 scenario unsurprisingly poses an existential threat – calling for a proper retooling and skill-set enhancement for industry players. Currently, an overview of Ghana's T&H industry indicates that tourism is regarded as the fourth income generating sector after gold, cocoa and oil ( MOTAC, 2019 ). In 2018, the industry contributed US$ 1,947.5 million, which was an increase of 4.9% of Ghana's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ( MOTAC, 2019 ). A report of the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) (2017) estimates that the sector's contribution to Ghana's GDP will increase by 4.2% to US$ 4,522.3 million by 2028. In terms of employment, the industry has offered approximately 692,000 direct and indirect jobs, which represented 5.3% of the total national employments in 2017 ( WTTC, 2017 ). This figure is estimated to grow to 807,000 jobs by 2028 ( WTTC, 2017 ).

to examine existing, declining and emerging occupations in the Ghanaian tourism and hospitality sector;

to examine the entry level requirements for the jobs associated with the occupations in the sector in accordance with the National Technical and Vocational Education and Training Qualification Framework (NTVETQF); and

to develop national career pathways for possible T&H job progressions from lower to higher qualifications.

Indeed, investigations of this nature within the tourism literature are important, given the critical roles (income earner, employment generation, foreign exchange earner and investment attracter) the sector plays in the development of any given economy. It is, therefore, imperative to critically examine the status quo, and offer practical yet crucial solutions to policymakers and practitioners. There is also the need to extend our understanding of the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT).

The study contributes to the growing literature on career development in the T&H in three ways. First, this study is among the first to develop a career map and anticipation structure for the T&H industry to fill an evidence gap. Second, the study contributes to the practice–knowledge gap in the literature by heeding to ILO and researchers' calls to solve the turnover, career mismatch (skills anticipation and mismatch), career progression and job satisfaction problems in the T&H industry ( Cassel et al. , 2018 ; ILO, 2020 ). Third, the novelty of the study is hinged on three theoretical contributions. First, the SCCT is extended and applied to fit career development in the T&H sector. Previously, self-efficacy or individual behavior was a major consideration in personal career development. However, in today's dynamic and competitive labor market, the T&H job environment is largely influenced by the national career paths, which is an extension of the SCCT theory. Second, the study reveals that self-efficacy may be enhanced when individuals are subjected to training in specific career pathways. Lastly, the SCCT has been used extensively at the personal and organizational levels. This study attempts to apply the theory to a national career pathway to fully harness the triadic reciprocity of person, behavior and context.

The study is structured in the following ways. First, we present a review of the existing literature on career progression in T&H. Next, we present the data collection and data analysis and then the main findings, discussion, limitation and future research direction. Finally, we present the conclusions and implications of the study.

Literature review

The social cognitive career theory (scct).

In general, career theories are usually contingent on environmental, economic and social factors. Hitherto career paths and development were structured by organizations, which were fundamentally a linear progression through the career stages ( Arthur & Rousseau, 2001 ). Earlier, employee success was defined by promotions, allowances, increments and job stability. Traditionally, organizational careers have been conceptualized as linear trajectories where employees progress in their careers in a linear hierarchical structure within the organization. This lifespan development model, which contrasts the “boundaryless career” model, discusses steady states and linear careers marked by a common work role for life and upward mobility ( Arthur & Rousseau, 2001 ; Eby, Butts, & Lockwood, 2003 ; Marler, Woodard Barringer, & Milkovich, 2002 ; Miller & Form, 1951 ). Given today's fast-paced and volatile organizational environment, scholars are beginning to put together new career development models and theories that explain the dynamic and changing nature of careers in diverse sectors, including the T&H sector.

There has been considerable vitality evident in career development research in the past 40 years. At its inception, Bandura (1986) paved the way by expanding his research on the Social Learning Theory (SLT) to Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The SCT posits that employees (for example, individuals in the T&H sector) learn through a social complex environment with a dynamic and reciprocal interaction of the individual, environment and behavior. The theory lays emphasis on social influence and its accompanying internal and external social reinforcements. Previous fundamental and related theories have been refined and reconceptualized, and expanded ( Holland, 1985 ; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994 ; Super, 1980 ). As a result, several novel theoretical perspectives have been introduced ( Hackett, Lent, & Greenhaus, 1991 ). The SCCT, an extension of the SCT in the context of career development, helps to “(a) bring together conceptually related constructs (e.g. self-concept, self-efficacy), (b) more fully explain outcomes that are common to a number of career theories (e.g. satisfaction, stability), and (c) account for the relations among seemingly diverse constructs (e.g. self-efficacy, interests, abilities, needs)” ( Hackett & Lent, 1992 , p. 443).

The SCT is predominantly hinged on the concept of triadic reciprocity. In this model, (1) observable behavior or responses depicted in the forms of actions; (2) personal attributes and physical attributes; and (3) external environment, all work together as interlocking mechanisms that affect each other bidirectionally ( Bandura, 1986 ). Personal attributes in the SCT are linked with a variety of self-reflective, vicarious, self-regulatory and cognitive processes ( Bandura, 1986 ). Each of these mechanisms are assumed to play a vital role in guiding psychosocial functioning, but goal representations, outcome expectations and self-efficacy beliefs are particularly important in the SCCT. The SCCT of career development focuses heavily on the mechanism of personal agency (i.e. self-efficacy appraisals). Self-efficacy refers to “people's judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances” ( Bandura, 1986 , p. 391). Specifically, self-efficacy percepts are considered to be responsible for a person's emotional reactions, choice of activities, choice of environment, thought patterns, expenditure and career paths. These personal attributes or beliefs are dynamic, not static, and may be context specific. Together, person, behavior and context , affect each other bidirectionally in the SCCT of career development ( Hackett & Lent, 1992 ).

Individuals’ environment exposes them to different activities and career paths from childhood to adolescence. These observed experiences expose them to various organizational tasks. Apart from the exposure from this environment, they are differentially strengthened to pursue certain selected activities in which they may excel, thereby receiving the appropriate reward. In other words, people pick career choices in which they view themselves as most efficacious ( Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994 ). In the context of the T&H industry, career options are selected by people based on their self-efficacy, particularly personal behavior or traits they exhibit, and the environment in which they find themselves. The application of the SCCT in the T&H sector influences our thoughts in three ways:

First, the T&H job environment is largely influenced by the national career paths available to people. This is because people find it easier applying and selecting jobs that are within their competency areas once the national career pathway has predefined roles. The national career pathways consequently influence individual choice. For example, a room attendant who understands the various career paths available to him/her may develop interest and work (through education and training) toward becoming an interior décor designer. Second, outcome expectations – an attribute of self-efficacy, may be enhanced when individuals are subjected to training in specific career pathways. Once individuals are taken through job specific trainings, they develop more realistic expectations concerning the prediction of their next job or promotion. This systematic approach to expectation enhances self-efficacy of employees who, in turn, grow more confident in the respective job roles, which translates into better performance. Third, the SCCT has been used extensively at the personal and organizational levels. This study attempts to apply the theory to a national career pathway to fully harness the triadic reciprocity (person, behavior and context) . The national career pathway presents a unique opportunity to understand how unique individuals reach specific career contexts, considering the belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute a particular course of action required to achieve the desired work outcomes in the T&H sector.

Career progression in tourism and hospitality

The existing literature ( Amissah, Mensah, Mensah, & Gamor, 2020 ; Armoo & Neequaye, 2014 ; DeMicco & Forgia, 2020 ; McGinley & Martinez, 2018 ; Murry et al. , 2017 ; Kim, Chun, & Petrick, 2009 ; Tolkach & Tung, 2019 ; Weber & Ladkin, 2008 ) has indicated the importance of career progression as a catalyst for human development in the T&H industry. Tolkach and Tung (2019) noted that the industry depends on recruitment and employee career progression. This is also considered relevant in human capital development. Usually, workers are optimistic about career progression in their lifetime. Sheu et al. (2010) examine the significant role employees' choice goal plays in the social cognitive career theory context. It was found that choice goal significantly explains self-efficacy and outcome expectations of employees. This finding provides the understanding that people develop goals to pursue academic and career relevant programs that are in-line with their interest, as well as their self-efficacy and outcome expectation. From the organization's point of view, the provision of career progression pathways offers opportunities for employees to have a clear direction and become managers of their own career paths, and motivates them to work hard in achieving higher positions. In addition, clear and concise career pathways may enable employees to choose a path that correlates with their interest and abilities or realign their career path. Using data from the Ghanaian T&H sector, Armoo and Neequaye (2014) found that industry–person congeniality, social benefit factors, opportunity for professional development and job competitiveness were crucial in determining Ghanaian students' choice of career options. This finding referenced that occupational development is a significant factor in explaining choice of career options in the T&H sector. On the other hand, the career literature has indicated some related human resource management elements such as employee competency behavior, employee bonding, citizenship behavior, career decisions and how they affect career progression ( Amissah et al. , 2020 ; Chang & Tse, 2015 ). Yoganathan, Osburg and Bartikowski's (2021) study on employee competency in the tourism sector established that social media competency increases bonding. Competency helps employees to build better and broader connection with others, which enhances bonding in the workplace. This signifies that when bonding exists in an organization, workers are more likely to protect and defend their organizational reputation. In addition, Shehawy (2017) investigated how the tourism education process, tourism employability and job competitiveness using the Egyptian tourism data. The findings showed that there are significant relationships that exist between tourism learning outcome and other indicators (tourism curriculum mapping, design measurements and employability competitiveness). Earlier studies (See: Hall, 2011 ; Voight & Laing, 2010 ) have also identified the importance of fertility and reproductive tourism, which are directly connected to productivity of the labor. The recent study of Elbaz, Mathew, Maher, Onjewu and Shehawy (2021) on motherhood fertility found that motherhood desire has a positive influence on attitude, subjective norm and female tourists' revisit intentions and actual behavior. Again, it is important to note that fertility exerts a negative influence on workforce participation when women have a newborn baby. This has a decreased effect on workforce participation for women who have just become mothers, which has implications for female workers' careers in the T&H sector.

The recent literature defined career progression pathways as a sequence of positions, which might be occupied by workers from the junior to the senior level in any given organization ( Gebbels, 2019 ; Tolkach & Tung, 2019 ). In the context of this research, the career progression pathway is contextualized as a step-by-step development of employees' career stages, from a lower to a higher rank in T&H organizations or between organizations with similar professions or specialization. This study's definition highlights the fact that the concept of career progression in the T&H study context implies employees will remain at the same job position or make a calculated effort to move up the occupational ladder. O'Leary and Deegan (2005) , using data from the career progression of Irish T&H context, found that there is a significant dropout of workers in the T&H sector due to poor remuneration and unfavorable working hours. Similarly, Hakim's (2020) study provided evidence that career development significantly influenced organizational commitment of employees in the tourism sector. The above empirical findings emphasize the importance of career progression in the T&H industry as a catalyst for the sector's development.

Research is still lacking in developing a national career progression pathway for the T&H workforce within the Ghanaian perspective. Hence, it is opportune to conduct a comprehensive career progression pathway assessment, and map occupations and their respective job titles for the Ghanaian T&H sector, which has been neglected in the career progression literature. In all, we present a literature matrix (see: Table 1 ), which demonstrates how extant studies have investigated career progression in different research contexts.

Research methodology

The focus of this study was to gather primary qualitative data from policymakers, T&H trade related associations, training providers and beneficiaries (T&H businesses). Note that the training providers were selected across the entire country while policymakers, trade associations and beneficiaries were selected in Accra, the capital city of Ghana. We used the purposive sampling method to select the participants to answer questions relating to the national framework that regulates T&H jobs including technical and vocational jobs, qualification requirements or guidelines and possible career progression. In all, this study used in-depth interviews of 33 industry stakeholders (interviewees) out of the 35 participants sampled earlier through face-to-face and telephone interviews to collect data that focused on unearthing the T&H occupations (existing, declining and emerging) and job titles, and further developed occupational pathways’ progression taking into consideration all the “eight-levels” of the NTVETQF (See: Figure 1 ). We followed the recommendation of Saunders et al. (2018) to use the strategy gathering rich (quality) and thick (quantitative) data to achieve data saturation and rigor. The sample size of 33 was determined by achieving data saturation, and there was an agreement between the researchers to halt recruiting more interviewees. Table 2 shows the detailed sampled summary of the number of interviewees used for this study and their respective institutions. Purposively, this study interviewed participants from the above institutions on the basis of their deep understanding of the industry.

In this study, the job title is regarded as a rank or position of an employee, while occupation is the task or core function performed by an employee. Following Creswell's (2014) definition, an in-depth interview is a technique designed to elicit information from an interviewee's perspective on a research topic. The key industry players or stakeholders interviewed for this study were categorized into four groups based on the final outcome of the study where a comprehensive career progression pathway was to be mapped in consultation with the industry players. The categories include policymakers (government ministries, departments and agencies), employer and trade associations (members of Ghana Tourism Federation (GHATOF)), training providers (hotel, tourism and catering training institutes, master craft persons and other relevant training institutions) and beneficiary partners (selected small, medium and large size tourism and hospitality companies/businesses).

In order to explore the research objectives in a consistent manner, the researchers developed a comprehensive interview guide including probing questions based on the three specific objectives proposed by the funding partners of the project, namely existing, declining and emerging jobs; entry qualifications; and possible career pathways development. All the participants responded to Question 1 to 6, and the remaining questions were stakeholder specific (see A ppendix ). First, the researchers presented a draft of the research instruments for this study to the industry players at a workshop where comments and suggestions were provided. Secondly, the revised questions were scrutinized by four tourism and hospitality experts from industry and academia appointed by the funding partners of the project.

Each participant was interviewed in English language by the researchers at an agreed location most convenient (e.g. offices and homes) for the interviewee. The interviews were conducted between October 9 and 16, 2020, using digital recorders, allowing for a word-by-word transcription of each interview that lasted approximately 40–65 minutes. A follow-up was done by phone for clarifications and more information when necessary. The transcriptions were analyzed using the qualitative content analysis to examine patterns in the occupations identified in the industry. We followed the recommendations made in the existing literature ( Mayring, 2000 ; Schreier, 2012 ) to conduct the content analysis for this study. First, we read the transcriptions over and over for content familiarity, keeping in mind the specific objectives of the study. Second, with the help of NVivo 12, we separately employed “in vivo coding”, which allows the researchers to derive codes from the actual words of the interviewees in the data itself. This form of coding is useful when the researcher interacts with the interviewees on particular issues. For example, we were interested in specific jobs and job titles in the Ghanaian T&H sector. Interestingly, the researchers individually coded the data in order to check whether we have obtained the same conclusions after reviewing the same data. This guarantees data validation, credibility, dependability and confirmability, which are considered as strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research ( Lazaraton, 2017 ; Shenton, 2004 ). Third, the identified codes were processed into three specific categories such as existing occupation, declining occupation and emerging occupation. Finally, the categories were developed into the three main themes: information technology jobs, environmental jobs and job titles.

This study adhered to the COVID-19 protocols in the data collection stages. The COVID-19 protocols of social distancing of at least two meters apart, use of a face mask, avoidance of handshakes, hand washing and use of hand sanitizers as recommended by the World Health Organization ( WHO, 2020 ) were observed during the entire period of the field research. The sample comprised 23 males (69.7%) and 10 females (30.3%). Averagely, all the interviewees had working experience in the industry of ten years and above. In all, the findings and the proposed national career pathways were validated at a workshop based on the inputs received from key stakeholders such as the employers and employees of the sector.

The findings revealed six subsectors within the Ghanaian T&H sector, proposed as “travel and tour”, “lodging”, “catering”, “events”, “education and training” and “arts and culture”, which were useful in mapping occupations and their respective job titles. Tables 3–8 showed occupations and job titles plotted according to the “eight levels” qualification framework (minimum to maximum levels), which responded specifically to Objective 2 of this study (entry level requirement of occupations associated with the T&H sector). Table 9 presented the national career progression pathways for the sector, which specifically addressed Objective 3. In summary, the key findings of the study revealed that “watchman” ( Table 5 ) was found to be the only declining job in the Ghanaian T&H sector; whereas the emerging jobs were website designers, digital marketers, data analysts, hygienists, and safety and hazard experts, which were labeled in red texts in Tables 3–8 .

I don't think there is anything like that […]
Training provider
[…] not really. What I remember is the new Ghana Tourism Authority law, which I think made a provision that managers should be licensed; even that one has not seen light of the day.
Trade association
At the moment I will say “Yes” and “No”, because we have National Hospitality Act, which helps to set up a hospitality and build the capacity of employees. However, most hospitality companies in Ghana operate as private individuals, and the career progression in the public sector cannot be aligned with what they have.

Declining or emerging occupations and job titles

Correspondingly, the result of the first objective showed the declining and emerging jobs and titles.

I can see one emerging job “hospitality accountants”. Like hospitality accounting, which has not been popularized in our part of the world. Mostly, we use “financial accountants” to support the sector. Our institutions should train more “hospitality accountants” who will be able to manage the sector effectively. […] one of the declining job titles in this country now is “watchman” which literally means keep an eye on something for me. Sophisticated devices like CCTV and security gadgets have taken over their job.
Mostly, the foreign hospitality firms come to work in Ghana with their chefs who are specialized in the international or continental foods. They only employ our local chefs when they are engaging in local foods which serve local consumers and some international tourists. Usually, these occupations “sommelier”, and “executive chef” are not available in our labor market. This is because our higher institutions do not have programs for these specializations. For example, if you examine how people become chefs, most of the chef started like a steward or cleaner or gardener in the industry after completion of secondary schools. Then, they developed later the passion to be cooks and become chefs as they get the opportunity to progress.

Entry level requirements for the jobs and possible pathways in the T&H sector

On our beaches you can find people parading themselves as they help people who are drowning. They have learnt swimming informally and they help people at the beach. Some people called them local informal rescuers.
We have the reservation agent who deals with ticketing and making travelling arrangement for tourists to travel to their destinations […] tour operator will put the tour package in terms of transportation and other logistics in place. In my organization I employ data analyst , who manages customers' data and other data related issues. It is seen as one of the emerging occupations that the industry cannot avoid if we want to be competitive. We must always analyze our markets' characteristics in order to plan and develop business strategies as well.
We are looking for food, beverage and sanitation officers as well as a Chef. I know they have various ranks of Chefs from executive Chef to the head Chef . Nowadays, you can also have pastry Chef, who specializes in pastry.
Trade Associations
[…] room attendant, cook, security, kitchen porters , waiters and waitresses usually consist of workers in the lower class in the Ghanaian labor market. Some people also see the cashiers as part of the restaurant service and the front officer in the reception. We also have the purchasing officers, store keepers, marketers as well as sales person who markets the tour packages to tourists. We are seeing demand for web designers and digital marketers as the industry strives hard to promote Ghana's T&H to the outside world on the social media and other digital platforms.
[…] if you go to other countries, they have specific courses for people to become bartenders . Bartenders in Ghana don't have any qualification before they begin to practice. They just enter as trainers and later they develop the passion to be bartenders.

Discussions of findings

To understand the career pathways’ progression, this research investigated the declining and emerging jobs and job titles and their respective entry level requirements in the T&H sector. Findings revealed that there are clear occupational paths available to all categories of workers in the six subsectors to progress in their choice of occupations. According to the SCCT, self-efficacy outlines the employee's capability to organize and attain the highest career paths. Further, the theory emphasizes that employees will pick a career path for which they view themselves as most efficacious ( Lent et al. , 1994 ). Interestingly, the possible career pathways accommodated diversification or realignment of occupations in the sector. For example, within the arts and culture subsector, woodcarver of Level 3 can diversify or realign an occupation after acquiring some level of training and formal education and become an assistant fashion designer or a sales trainee in Level 4 and progress to Level 6 to become a fashion designer, manager, sales manager or customer relationship manager. This pathway is possible because the individual, through training, develops a self-efficacy trademark such as positive attitudes, abilities and cognitive skills that boosts one's self confidence to make great strides in the job market.

Noticeably, the sector's career pathways’ progression is envisioned on some key emerging occupational areas: safety and security; technology adoption; and hygiene (environmental occupations). The findings on technology strengthens the understanding of how Ghanaian T&H businesses have gradually started deploying the concept of artificial intelligence (AI) within the field of robotics, which is regarded as one of the most exciting and promising applications for individuals and businesses operating within T&H. For example, providing the chatbots’ services that allow a hotel or travel company to provide 24/7 support through online chat or instant messaging services, even when their staff are not available. Analytically, the findings on technology, security, safety and hygiene imply that these findings are in line with UNWTO (2003) initiatives for nations to develop a national policy to safeguard tourists against risk and hygiene related matters such as crime, sexual assault, terrorism, food safety and hygiene. Furthermore, this shows that Ghana, a country ranked as the 115th of 136 tourism destinations in the world, is adhering to and aligning career paths that cover security and hygiene issues addressed in the UNWTO developmental plans for the T&H sector. In addition, the emerging technology supported occupations and job titles also demonstrated the level at which technology-oriented occupations have been responded to in the Ghanaian career pathways progression of the T&H sector. This signifies that the Ghanaian T&H sector is conforming to the best practices in the world T&H space. Furthermore, this study's finding highlighted Ghana's acceptance of various technology adoption measures supported by legislation such as the Electronic Transaction Act (Act 772 of 2008), National Information Technology Agency Act (Act 771 of 2008) and Data Protection Act (Act 843 of 2012) to protect and ensure quality service provision in the sector. This provides evidence of Ghana's preparedness in supporting the innovation technology that will benefit the T&H sector. The T&H sector depends on the Internet as one of the technological ways tourists can access the needed information related to online traveling sites, booking, photo check out, price comparison for vacations and e-transactions. Added to this, Ghana's Agenda for Jobs: Creating Prosperity and Equal Opportunity for All (2017–2024) of the Coordinated Program of Economic and Social Development Policies emphasized the transformation of the T&H sector through investment in innovation technology and job creation for excellent e-service to tourists such as websites, e-check-in and online booking.

The finding on the declining job and job title “watchman” reaffirmed that security related matters have become complex and the roles of “watchman” have been expanded to cater for the safety and security need driven for the sector. Ten years ago, the role of “watchman” in context was to watch over a property or premise at night when the owners or occupants are asleep. Today, the direction of crime has changed, given that there is daylight robbing, kidnapping, property theft, mugging, armed robbery, as well as terrorism acts evidenced in the sector. Previous studies in context have evidenced how tourists feel unsafe at some destination sites ( Boakye, 2010 ; Poku & Boakye, 2019 ; Preko, 2020a , 2020b ). It is also important to note that during the COVID-19 pandemic, security personnel have had an add-on function of checking the temperature of tourists, and ensuring the strict adherence of the COVID-19 protocols on site. This signifies that the security personnel job description has been expanded to include safeguarding the health and safety of tourists at sites. This observation is similar to the findings of Cheung, Takashima, Choi, Yang and Tung (2021) , where they investigated the impact of COVID-19 on psychological needs of tourists using the existence, related and growth theory. Their findings reinforce the importance of safety and security during COVID-19. This provides a signal that advances the understanding on how safety and security personnel and their careers can strategically be defined to manage any given situation in the sector.

Conclusion and implications

In conclusion, the current study revealed one declining job and 12 emerging jobs, mostly in the security, hygiene and information technology-oriented occupations; and developed national career pathways for the sector. Strategically, these results suggest that Ghana is on course in developing career paths that incorporate key components of the tourism and hospitality agenda of the UNTWO advocacy in the areas of safety, security, hygiene and deployment of technologies in the sector. This will position the country to compete effectively with other tourism nations worldwide. It was also found that the possible career paths developed make provision for diversification and realignment of occupations in the sector, which serves as a motivational factor to all employees who aspire to choose occupational paths with high social status, and promising and rewarding careers within the sector. Indeed, the results of this study have extended the national understanding of career progression, which has not been examined earlier in the T&H sector in context. The current study makes significant contributions that fill gaps in the extant tourism career literature. First, this is the first study in context that comprehensively examines declining and emerging jobs and job titles in the T&H sector. Second, the research provides vocational insights in mapping the entry level requirements for the jobs allied with occupations in the NTVETQF of Ghana at the national level. Third, findings from this research differ from earlier career research of Amissah et al. (2020) , who found perceptions toward the careers in the sector unfavorable in terms of the knowledge transfer skills, employee exposure to other career avenues and the offer of good promotion prospects using tourism students' data in context. Fourth, this study extends tourism studies ( Armoo & Neequaye, 2014 ; Kim et al. , 2009 ; Murry et al. , 2017 ; Tolkach & Tung, 2019 ) on career paths within the literature by using first-hand qualitative data from the key industry stakeholders. Fifth, this study has addressed the lack of national career pathways progression in accordance with the NTVETQF based on the six identified subsectors of the T&H sector, which will help to overcome the challenges of upgrading from the lower to higher ranks in the sector.

Practically, this study's findings provide learning opportunities for HR managers and general managers to develop specific HR policies and practices regarding recruitment, education, talent management and career progression management that will boost employee self-efficacy in the sector. It is important for the HR practitioners and managers in the sector to conduct periodic trainings, workshops, conferences, seminars and open fora on career progressions’ awareness matters for the T&H employees in order to increase their knowledge on the subject matter. Again, the T&H sector and its allied institutions should employ both hard and soft media (e.g. newspapers, television programs, brochures, websites etc.) in the dissemination of information about employee career progressions to ensure a continuous increase of knowledge on career pathways’ subjects. At the national level, the entry level for T&H occupations and career mapping for the T&H may now be adopted for use in the T&H industry. The career mapping for the T&H serves as a standardized career progression pathway that may guide T&H practitioners and administrators on job placement and promotion, to solve the practical knowledge gap of career misalignment in the T&H industry. Strategically, T&H businesses should embrace the significant role played by robotics and AI in order to develop the sector by deploying a variety of technologies, including collision detection, Wi-Fi and AI to navigate hotels and provide services. For industry practitioners, one practical implication is the valuable signal for the growing number of jobs in security services, hygiene and information technology-oriented occupations. The Ministry of Tourism, Arts and Culture, including practitioners, HR directors and general managers, should respond timely to these growing needs in order to remain competitive in the sector. In addition, the findings inform HR managers, other practitioners and business owners about the need to pay attention to the entry level requirements for each occupation and apply them to useful ends accordingly. At a glance, the results reveal that only “watchman” occupation and job title was identified as a declining job. It is important to inform HR managers and general managers that they should always be up-to-date in looking out for jobs that might need training and re-qualification in their respective organizations. This strategy might be treasured in developing new skills needed for the sector. The finding of scarcity of some key professions or skills such as “hospitality accountant”, “sommelier” and “executive chef” in the sector implies that T&H managers and businesses, including HR managers, can make recommendations to the higher learning institutions to prepare these skills for the sector. This will encourage businesses in the T&H sector to begin engaging the services of Ghanaian workers to occupy these key positions in the sector. Again, the findings suggest to HR managers that organizational structure, design, culture and process should simultaneously create work-based learning for Ghanaian employees to acquire the skills that are a scarcity for the sector. Scholars have widely acknowledged that a structured and diversified career path progression offers employees mobility within the sector, which then motivates employees to work hard in achieving higher positions ( Gebbels, 2019 ; Kim et al. , 2009 ; O'Leary & Deegan, 2005 ; Tolkach & Tung, 2019 ). This research supports these viewpoints and further recommends that managers should consider providing working conditions that will boost employee self-efficacy to work harder to migrate from the lower to the higher positions in the industry. Practically, the study identified six subsectors in the T&H industry, namely: “travel and tour”, “lodging”, “catering”, “events”, “education and training” and “arts and culture”. Educational institutions could take a cue from this and develop courses and programs to fill the skills gaps in the sector. The recommendations provided in this study are not country specific but similar geographic settings can adopt some of the suggestions when necessary.

Our study furthermore contributes to the SCCT in three ways: First, the T&H ecosystem is largely influenced by the national career paths available to the people. As such, the SCCT inherently supports a national career path ecosystem that opens up career pathways to individual actors in the T&H sector. This opportunity helps individual actors or employees to organize and accomplish the highest career progression possible in the industry. Secondly, it is envisaged that individual actors in the T&H will work and progress with aplomb when the individual is taken through on-the-job training and education. In other words, the SCCT theory improves our understanding of how individual actors or employees in the T&H sector progress through the ranks on the back of an important outcome expectation of the SCCT – “self-efficacy”. Lastly, the SCCT has been used extensively at the personal and organizational levels. This study is the first to apply the SCCT to a national career pathway to fully harness the triadic reciprocity.

Limitations and area for future studies

In all, the findings of this study cannot be overlooked because, significantly, this is the first study in context that responds timely to the development of a national career progression, although there are some limitations. This research has the inherent limitations of a qualitative study that discourages the results to be generalized due to the lack of randomness in the selection and statistical representation of interviews although the qualitative approach is perhaps one of the best approaches to gathering unique insights from the industry. Further studies should investigate how HR managers, practitioners, employers and other stakeholders in the sector are applying and complying with the national career paths and provide recommendations for updates that will see continuous relevance of the career path document to the sector, as well as furthering investigations into the applications of robotics and AI in the sector. For future study directions, researchers should consider gathering quantitative data from employees of the sector regarding the applicability of the developed career path based on their choice, attitudes and viewpoints that can be gathered through different engagements such as workshops, seminars, conferences and open fora, etc.

career in tourism and hospitality

National TVET qualifications framework

Compilations of the relevant literature used for this study

Number of interviewees sampled

Entry level requirement for lodging related occupations

Entry level requirement for the catering related occupations

Entry level requirement for events related occupations

Entry level requirement for education and training related occupations

Entry level requirement for arts and culture related occupations

Tourism and hospitality career pathway map

Appendix Research instruments

What is the specific regulatory document that defined career progression in the tourism and hospitality sector?

Is it a regulatory framework for only tourism or hospitality or for both tourism and hospitality?

Does the regulatory framework identify and describe all existing jobs including job titles, duration, entry requirements in the sector?

Does the regulatory framework define the opportunities for possible progression from the lower to higher qualifications with the respective jobs?

Are these occupations in the sector documented with their titles and job descriptions?

Are there any emerging or declining jobs in the tourism sector that should be titled and defined for the industry?

Are there any emerging or declining jobs in the hospitality sector that should be titled and defined for the industry?

Does the career path map the possible pathways for progression from lower to higher qualifications and respective jobs?

What is the minimum entry requirement for jobs in the tourism and hospitality sector?

What are the possible career paths for Proficiency I holders to obtain a bachelor degree in the sector?

What are some of the professions identified in the sector that are aligned to the NTVETQF guidelines?

What are the entry requirements for these qualifications: Proficiency I, II, Certificate I, Higher National Diploma, and Bachelor degree?

What are the further education and training programs on offer to individuals in the technical and vocational occupations to their career pathways?

In what specific ways is the institution preparing occupations in the sector for progression from the lower to higher qualifications and respective jobs?

Are you (employers' association/trade unions) represented on the regulatory body?

What are the tourism and hospitality academic qualifications offered in your institution? ( Training providers )

What programs of education and training do you provide for your employees? ( Beneficiary institutions )

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Murry , W. , Elliot , S. , Simmonds , K. , Madeley , D. , & Taller , M. ( 2017 ). Human resource challenges in Canada's hospitality and tourism industry . Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes , 9 ( 4 ), 391 – 401 .

O'Leary , S. , & Deegan , J. ( 2005 ). Career progrossion of Irish tourism and hospitality management graduates . International Journal of Comtemporary Hospitality Management , 17 ( 5 ), 421 – 432 .

Oluwole , V. ( 2022 ). Africa travel: 10 best places to visit according to TIME . Business Insider. Available from: ( accessed 1 May 2022 ).

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Further reading

Bowen , G. ( 2009 ). Document analysis as a qualitative research method . Qualitative Research Journal , 9 ( 2 ), 27 – 40 .

Dworkin , S. ( 2012 ). Sample size policy for qualitative studies using in-depth interview . Achieves of Sexual Behaviour , 41 ( 6 ), 1319 – 1320 .

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Manning , J. ( 2017 ). In vivo coding . In J. Matthes (Ed.), The international encyclopedia of communication research methods . NY : Wiley-Blackwell .

Zhou , G. ( 2000 ). When will the embarrassed hotel management graduates become unembarrassed . North Economy and Trade , 203 , 158 – 160 .


The authors would like to thank the ILO team: Ms. Vanessa L. Phala (ILO Country Director for Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Liaison for ECOWAS), Ms. IIca Webster (ILO Senior Skills Specialist for West Africa), Mr. Adetor Frank Kwasi (National Project Coordinator-ILO SKILL UP Ghana Component) and Mrs Elsie Amo (Project Administrative Officer-ILO SKILL UP Ghana Component); SSB team: Dr. Eunice Amissah (Chairperson), Mr. Kwesi Eyison, (Vice Chairperson), Dr. Adelaide Mensah-Kuffour (Secretary), Mrs. Bella Ehu (President of GHATOF), and Mr. Emmanuel Frimpong (Executive Secretary of GHATOF) and Tourism & Hospitality Sector Skills Body members and the two anonymous reviewers for their insightful and constructive comments from which the present paper greatly improved. The authors give special thanks to CTVET: Dr Fred Kyei Asamoah (Director General-CTVET), Mr. Theophilus Tetteh Zogblah (Coordinator-CTVET), and Ms. Edith Adotey (Program Officer-CTEVT), Data Collection/Interviews- Mrs. Egi Gaise. Any remaining errors or deficiencies are solely the authors’ responsibility.

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Field Trip Creates Real-World Opportunities for Hospitality Students

Hospitality and Tourism Management students with their instructor on a sunny day outside with a fire pit and wooden chairs in front at the Ritz-Carlton in Truckee, CA.

As a Hospitality and Tourism Management student, you will come to expect the unexpected. While you may meet many industry experts who share their knowledge and experience, class content is based in the classroom or online, but an educational trip provides an authentic experience.

“Field trips are an exciting and engaging way to learn about the industry,” said Vanina Coudriet, professor of hospitality and tourism. “These trips play a crucial role in enriching the educational experience of hospitality and tourism students, bridging the gap between theory and application, fostering industry connections, and preparing students for successful careers in this dynamic industry.”

Students in the Hospitality and Tourism program recently enjoyed a field trip to the Ritz-Carlton, Lake Tahoe, located in Truckee, CA, including complimentary transportation in a mini-bus, courtesy of Reno-Tahoe Limousine.

“The purpose of the field trip to the Ritz-Carlton was two-fold,” said Coudriet. “Students learned about service quality standards from the experts and observed leadership skills, competencies, and behaviors that are successful in the hospitality industry.”

While at the Ritz-Carlton, students participated in a working lunch with presentations from Colin Perry, General Manager, and HR experts. They also had the opportunity to tour the property and experience luxury hospitality firsthand.

“The students were thrilled to visit a luxury hotel, learn from local industry leaders, observe the customer experience concepts we discussed in the classroom, inquire about job opportunities, build community with classmates, and have fun,” said Coudriet. “While at the Ritz-Carlton, the unexpected thing was being able to watch the “ Masters of the Craft Competition ,” which showcases the extraordinary culinary and beverage talent within Marriott International hotels, beginning with a mystery ingredient that the culinarians and mixologists must use in their final dish or cocktail.

The message from the Ritz-Carlton was clear: in the hospitality and tourism industry, it’s essential to create a culture that guests will appreciate and return to. Students also heard about emphasizing the importance of gaining lifelong guests.

“We are beyond grateful for the support of our industry partners,” said Coudriet. “We’ve had many class speakers and field trips, which allow students to clearly understand all the avenues they can explore for future careers.”

Hospitality students role-playing the check-in process with experienced hotel employees at the Ritz-Carlton, Lake Tahoe.

Hospitality students role-playing the check-in process with experienced hotel employees at the Ritz-Carlton, Lake Tahoe.

Hospitality students play the role of the concierge in a luxury customer experience.

Hospitality students play the role of the concierge in a luxury customer experience.

Hospitality student in the kitchen, about to watch the 'Masters of the Craft Competition,' showcasing extraordinary culinary and beverage talent.

Hospitality student in the kitchen, about to watch the 'Masters of the Craft Competition,' showcasing extraordinary culinary and beverage talent.

Hospitality students relax in the lobby after completing a hotel tour and its indulging comforts.

Hospitality students relax in the lobby after completing a hotel tour and its indulging comforts.

Hospitality students and their professor, Vanina Coudriet, touring the warm and refined Ritz-Carlton hotel.

Hospitality students and their professor, Vanina Coudriet, touring the warm and refined Ritz-Carlton hotel.

Hospitality students role-playing the check-in process with experienced hotel employees at the Ritz-Carlton, Lake Tahoe.

A Growing Industry with Many Career Opportunities

There’s good news for future students who haven’t considered a hospitality and tourism management career, with exciting possible job titles and travel opportunities.

“The job market in H&T continues to grow, especially in this area, as new hotels open and new customer experience opportunities develop,” said Coudriet. “The average annual pay for a Hospitality Tourism job in Northern Nevada is about $50,000 annually.”

Professionals in this field can find work in many types of businesses, including outdoor recreation, entertainment and events, air and ground transportation, and, of course, hotel and food service management. And as the recent field trip showed current students, the variety of the industry focuses on one thing: the customer experience.

“COVID reshaped the landscape of the hospitality and tourism industry,” said Coudriet. “Businesses have adapted to new health and safety standards, changing consumer preferences, and technological innovations to thrive in a post-pandemic world. It’s helped the industry realize the importance of resilience and adaptability. Also, sustainability and well-being are more relevant than ever.”

For more information, visit Hospitality and Tourism Management .

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Emerging trends in hospitality for 2024 and beyond

29th April, 2024

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In this article

Dr Dimitrios Diamantis, Executive Academic Dean at Les Roches, draws upon two decades of industry-focused research experience to capture the key hospitality trends coming in 2024.

Tourism and hospitality is one of the world’s most important industries – worth around $9.5 trillion in 2023 – and most dynamic, making it a fascinating subject for an academic like myself to pursue.

At Les Roches, it’s our duty to keep our students up to speed with the latest trends across the hospitality industry. In this article I want to touch on some of the topics and trends that are generating the most debate and comment in our classes. 

A summary of 2023’s key trends

Before we look forward, it is always useful to look back, as from that perspective we can see the origins of several important current trends in hospitality for this year.

Making the hotel industry a more attractive career choice

Probably the biggest talking point for the industry in 2023 concerned the ongoing ‘war for talent’, and in particular how to attract and retain young people. With new generations seeking a better work/life balance, as well as more defined career paths, hotels need to raise their game in terms of offering fully-rounded packages that encompass more than just salary and bonuses.

This is especially true at what we might term ‘long haul’ destinations, where operators have had to think more deeply about the expatriate packages they provide, covering areas such as accommodation alongside other more intangible benefits.

Hotel company HR directors I speak to are now seeking to come up with the right mixture of tangible and intangible benefits, with the latter including components that enhance the quality of the employee’s life, such as wellness centers, healthier meals in the staff catering areas, and so on. The companies that care best for their employees are the ones that will win the ‘war for talent’.

The battle of the brands

The second big trend to look back on was the hotel industry becoming even more brand sensitive, with a multitude of new brands being developed to cater to specific needs and desires of modern travelers. 

From the consumer’s perspective this is great news, as more choice is always welcome, and it increases the chances of finding that ideally-matched concept. From the industry perspective, it adds to what is already a very competitive market, putting even more emphasis on delivering exemplary, highly personalized guest experiences to maintain customer loyalty .

We can’t ignore the global context

The third and final 2023 trend I want to touch upon is how the shifting economic and geopolitical sands impacted the business of hospitality. Conflicts and political turmoil are, in themselves, beyond the control of hoteliers. But given the truly global nature of hospitality it’s an industry that cannot escape the commercial implications of these shocks. 

The turmoil in eastern Europe and the Middle East has made the industry a little more cautious in places, leading some to focus on developing domestic or well-established overseas markets rather than taking chances on more ambitious ventures.

On a positive note, the growing economic power of countries like India and Saudi Arabia is increasingly being invested in tourism and hospitality, which can only be good for the overall health of the industry. Saudi Arabia in particular is making a major play on tourism through its Vision 2030 initiative – and for me it was a genuine statement of intent to see the Saudi Tourism Authority sign an agreement last year to become the global partner of the World Travel Market trade shows.

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The emerging hospitality trends for 2024

If that was 2023, what trends can we expect to unfold as we progress through 2024? Since we were a couple of months into the year as I was writing this article, the picture is already becoming clearer.

Sustainability is becoming ‘business as usual’

Any look ahead to 2024 for the industry must include the topic of sustainability in hospitality and the need to build sustainable practices into day-to-day operations.

There’s more concern than ever about environmental matters among the global population, and especially in the wealthier, ‘western’ economies which are home to vast numbers of potential guests for the hotel industry.

For hospitality companies, this is creating pressure from two directions. On one hand, research reveals that guests are increasingly looking for evidence that the hotel is a good corporate citizen ; on the other, governments and regulators are challenging operators to demonstrate their ESG (Environment, Social and Governance) credentials through more regular and detailed reporting.

In this regard, Singapore can be seen to have taken a lead in proposing mandatory climate reporting . In the EU, meanwhile, the Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD) means large companies will have to report on their ESG practices from 2025 onwards, beginning with the financial year 2024. This includes EU-based subsidiaries of businesses that are not headquartered in the bloc, further widening the net.

I believe the industry has already made good progress in this area, particularly in areas such as making better use of resources like power, water, etc. In addition, hotels have always done a great job of providing local employment, but now we are also seeing properties become more integrated in their communities, respecting and showcasing local cultures, investing in environmental protection schemes, etc.

More personalized service and experiences

I already mentioned the rapid expansion in the number of hotel brands and concepts on offer; and this is part of a wider trend towards a more personalized experiences that focusses on individual preferences. Digital transformation and leveraging the data it creates is clearly an important part of this – the more we know about our guests, the more personalized our service can become.

From an employee perspective, the drive now is towards specialization. To be a decision-maker in hospitality today you effectively need to wear two hats – as an all-rounder with a good knowledge of the operational or financial elements; but also as a specialist in your chosen area, be it food & beverage (F&B) , resort management , golf courses , cruise lines , whatever.

Hospitality needs people with in-depth knowledge of these specialized areas in order to deliver a brand offering that is expanding beyond pure hotel accommodation. For example, Four Seasons is now putting its name to private flying and private yacht charters, while The Hong Kong & Shanghai Hotels Limited operates the world famous Peninsula Hotels but also manages golf clubs and private members’ clubs, as well as investing in private and commercial real estate.

The continuing convergence of luxury and hospitality

Whether it’s under their own name, such as Bulgari Hotels , or in a more subtle fashion, such as Chopard’s new Parisian boutique hotel 1 Place Vendôme , luxury goods brands have ventured into hospitality in an increasingly enthusiastic fashion.

As so often, LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton (LVMH) is at the vanguard, thanks to the creation of a dedicated hospitality arm that encompasses luxury hotel brands Belmond and Cheval Blanc. They recognize the crossover between luxury customers and luxury travelers and, from a talent management point of view, they know that the power of their brands – and the lure of the luxury sector as a whole – makes them a magnet for the brightest and best potential recruits.

Health and wellness tourism explores new frontiers

Forecast to become a trillion dollar market in 2024 , global wellness tourism is a market sector that can truly be said to have come of age.

For me, one of the lasting changes from the Covid pandemic is that many of us have become more health-conscious, aided by a plethora of wellness apps and other technologies that have given us unprecedented insights into the condition of our bodies.

The major wellness-focused hospitality brands have not been slow to respond, with significant expansions now underway by Six Senses , Banyan Tree , and others. Health and wellness is also featuring strongly in the exciting new tourism developments in Saudi Arabia, including the Amaala development that will be home to the first full scale health and longevity destination by the high end Swiss operator, Clinique la Prairie.

For highly seasonal destinations, such as alpine ski resorts, the growth of wellness tourism can be a real boon – and this is especially true for the more low-lying resorts for whom the ‘snow season’ has shrunk due to our changing climate. Wellness tourism is an all year round affair, and I think we will see more resorts making a play to attract operators to set up in their locale.

Innovations in technology bring new opportunities in sustainability and guest service

The hotel sector has not always been a place where new ideas and new technologies thrive – but that is changing.

At Les Roches, we’re doing our bit by embedding innovation into all our academic programs; plus we have our own dedicated innovation center in the form of Spark .

Given the desire of many tourists to head for sunnier climes when on vacation, one innovation that could be adopted by hotel operators in those regions is the brainchild of Cool Roof France . This Brittany-based company has developed a special paint that uses the waste from oysters, more especially the calcium from the oyster shell. A roof covered with this paint is able to reflect 90% of the sun’s rays away from buildings, reducing cooling costs and carbon footprints in a sustainable and cost-effective manner.

Another innovator worth noting offers eco-friendly versions of consumable items which are bought just as regularly by hotel operators as they are by households across the world. Founded in 2020 and based in the United States, EcoSoul makes tableware, kitchen utensils, tissues and drinking straws out of sustainable materials like sugar cane, palm leaf, rice husk, wheat straw, and bamboo. Currently focused on b2c sales, it will be interesting to see if companies like EcoSoul can crack the corporate market, including hospitality.

Within the hotel business itself, I see a continuing rollout of personalization through technology, with innovations like in-room AI-powered chatbots becoming a more common form of guest interaction. Improved, data driven decision making will allow hotels to offer more focused services based on personalization and wellbeing.

It’s a people thing, naturally

Ultimately, though, the delivery of memorable hospitality experiences comes down to the human touch, and that means solving the talent challenge I referred to at the beginning of this piece. From the big chains to the individual operators, hoteliers need to fight like never before to ensure that service-oriented, interculturally fluent young talents choose hospitality ahead of other competing career paths.

Alexander_Spatari_Stone / Via Getty Images

The biggest challenges facing hospitality in 2024

Continuing on this theme of keeping talented employees loyal to the brand and the business, for the younger generations, this will involve more than just salary and bonuses, as these workers tend to value ‘softer’ elements around quality of life just as highly. Work/life balance is a perennial challenge in a 24/7 industry like hospitality, and it’s something the industry must address if it wants to remain an attractive environment in which to build a career.

That said, I don’t think you can look beyond geopolitics as the biggest challenge facing hoteliers in the coming year. No industry likes uncertainty, and with conflicts raging in several places and an unprecedented array of national elections throughout this year, uncertainty is the order of the day.

In response, the hospitality education sector needs to build crisis and change management into everything we teach. Hospitality is an incredibly resilient industry which has bounced back from all kinds of shocks in recent decades – from September 11 to Covid – but at an individual level we need to ensure that the industry’s future leaders have the agility and resilience to not become overwhelmed during times of crisis.

It’s not all bad news by any means, though. Human nature is such that in challenging times we naturally seek an escape route, and for many of us that means taking a holiday to ‘get away from it all’. In particular, I see the trend towards staycations being maintained this year, particularly in markets like the United States.

Last but not least among the challenges, the industry is going to have to respond to the ESG (Environment, Social & Governance) challenge. Customers – especially on the corporate side – are increasingly shifting their business to hoteliers who fit their own ESG philosophies, while sustainability and ESG reporting must include actions towards climate change at the local, regional and global level.

How to spot trends in hospitality

As a trend spotter for more than two decades, the biggest change I have seen is the growing reliance on data across our industry. When we take our MBA cohorts to visit hospitality corporate offices, we find everyone talking about how data-driven their roles have become. Today, even in areas like marketing, data leads the creative process, and there’s no escaping this.

If you want to delve into market intelligence yourself, there are lots of organizations to tap into, including HotStats, Skift and STR to name a few. There’s also a wealth of academic research to call upon, including from myself and my colleagues at Les Roches .

The deeper you dive into the world of tourism and hospitality, the more fascinating it becomes. Welcome aboard the most global and dynamic of industries!

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Meet Boston is hosting its third annual regional career fair to boost the city's booming hospitality industry. Hilina Ajakaiye, Executive Vice President of the Greater Boston Convention & Visitors Bureau and Conan Harris of Conan Harris and Associates encourage Bostonians to come out and explore jobs and careers in tourism. The fair will be on April 30 and is for job seekers of all levels and experience learn more and register to attend .

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25 Hotel Industry Statistics [2023]: Hotel Rate Trends And Market Data

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Research Summary. The hotel industry not only reaches across the globe but also spans a wide cross-section of options ranging from budget motels to luxury resorts, making it an interesting field to study. Here are the key statistics on the hotel industry:

There are at least 187,000 hotels in the world as of 2023.

There are an estimated 17.5 million guestrooms in the world.

The global hospitality industry is worth over $4.548 trillion as of 2022.

There are about 1.6 million people employed by the U.S.’s accommodation industry.

The global travel and tourism industry was worth $4.671 trillion in 2020 , down from its $9.17 trillion value in 2019.

The average U.S. hotel occupancy rate is 64.2% as of February 2023.

1.6 million Americans are employed by the accommodation industry

Hotel Industry Statistics by Consumer Preferences

78% of millennials would rather spend their money on experiences than on things.

Hotels with a significant number of high-quality photos on their websites see a 15% increase in conversion rates.

This is compared to hotels that use few and/or low-quality photos. Including good photos of hotel rooms and amenities helps travelers know what they’re getting into and better imagine themselves there.

TripAdvisor shared that the number of photos a hotel has on its TripAdvisor profile has the most impact on traveler engagement with the listing.

More specifically, properties with at least one photo see a 138% increase in engagement and are 225% more likely to receive a booking inquiry, and those with over 100 photos see a 151% increase in engagement and are 283% more likely to receive a booking inquiry.

Europe has the highest hotel occupancy rate of any region in the world.

As of 2019, European hotels have an occupancy rate of 72.2%, meaning an average of 72.2% of all hotel rooms are occupied.

US Hotel Industry Statistics

There are 90,562 hotel and motel businesses in the U.S.

This number is a 0.4% increase from 2021, which is on trend with the average annual growth rate of 0.4% that this industry has seen from 2017 to 2022.

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There are approximately 5.29 million hotel rooms in the U.S.

The U.S. hotel and motel industry is worth $177.6 billion.

This industry is predicted to grow by 33.6% throughout 2022 as it continues to recover from the COVID-19 pandemic, although it’s seen an average annual decline of 2.4% from 2017 to 2022.

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The U.S. tourism industry was valued at $545.11 billion in 2020.

In 2020, U.S. hotels had an average occupancy rate of 44%.

Hotel Industry Statistics by Employment

The U.S.’s accommodation industry employs about 1.6 million people.

In Q1 2019, there were 1.352 million gross job gains in the U.S. leisure and hospitality sector.

Here are data points for each quarter from Q1 2019 through Q2 2021.

In Q1 of 2019, there were 1.22 million gross job losses in the U.S. leisure and hospitality industry.

Here are the numbers for each quarter following that through Q2 2021:

The average employee of the U.S. leisure and hospitality industry makes $19.44 an hour.

32% of U.S. leisure and hospitality industry employees have access to employer-sponsored health care.

43% get paid vacation from their employers, and 50% receive paid sick leave .

Hotel Industry Trends and Projections

In 2019, the global hotels and resorts market was worth over $1.5 trillion.

This was just before the COVID-19 pandemic caused widespread lockdowns in 2020, and it was the pinnacle of seven years of nearly continuous growth.

From 2021 to 2025, the global hotel and travel accommodation industry is projected to have a CAGR of 7%.

This will result in a market value of $1.05 trillion in 2025. In 2020, the global hotel and travel accommodation market was worth $673.02 billion, and it grew to $801.9 billion in 2021, which is a CAGR of 19.1%.

In 2020, travel and tourism contributed $4.671 trillion to the global GDP.

While this is a significant amount of money, it is also a significant decrease from the $9.17 trillion it contributed in 2019. This is a result of the 2020 COVID-19 lockdowns that significantly reduced the amount of travel in the world.

career in tourism and hospitality

From 2008 to 2018, the number of hotels around the world has increased by nearly 14,300.

career in tourism and hospitality

Hotel Industry Statistics FAQ

What is the growth rate of the hotel industry?

The growth rate of the hotel industry is 19.1%. This was the CAGR from 2020 to 2021 as the global hotel industry reopened after the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns began to lift.

What are the four segments of the hospitality industry?

The four segments of the hospitality industry are Food and Beverage, Accommodation (also referred to as Lodging), Travel and Tourism, and Entertainment and Recreation.

You don’t necessarily have to be traveling to enjoy the hospitality industry’s offerings. The Food and Beverage sector, for example, includes restaurants , bowling alley food, and concessions stands, not just hotel restaurants. As a result, this is the largest sector of the hospitality industry.

The Accommodation or Lodging sector includes hotels, campgrounds, rental homes, and any other facility that gives people a place to sleep. This includes resorts, motels, and hostels all alike.

The Travel and Tourism sector covers the actual act of traveling via airlines, cruise ships, trains, taxis, and more. Whether you’re traveling for leisure or business, chances are you’ll utilize at least one of travel and tourism’s offerings on a trip.

The last sector of the hospitality industry is Entertainment and Recreation. This sector is made up of all the activities that people do just for the enjoyment of it. These include:

Swimming pools

Spectator sports

Movie theaters

Participatory sports (e.g., scuba diving, golf, tennis)

Amusement parks

How many American hospitality workers were fired or laid off in 2020?

10.65 million American hospitality workers were fired or laid off in 2020. While About 1.2 to 1.4 million people in this industry lost their jobs each quarter throughout 2019, 1.695 found themselves unemployed in Q1 2020, and a whopping 6.331 million were suddenly unemployed in Q2 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns.

Is the hotel industry recovering?

Yes, the hotel industry is recovering. The global hotel and travel accommodation industry is expected to have a CAGR of 7% from 2021 to 2025.

What are the latest trends in the hotel industry?

The latest trends in the hotel industry are high-tech, green facilities, alternative accommodation options, and incorporating experiences into hotel stays.

Hotels are beginning to implement more and more smart technology, whether it’s a keyless entry or turning on the AC with an app. In addition, many hotels are looking for ways to reduce their carbon footprint by conserving water, reducing single-use plastics, and earning their LEED certifications.

Another hotel industry trend is that travelers (especially millennials) are looking more toward alternative accommodation options, whether that’s a rental house or villa, a mobile home, or hotels with a personality that reflect the local culture rather than standardized branding.

Hotels are responding to this by focusing on opening boutique hotels and facilities that bring unique elements to their decor, amenities, and even floor plans.

The hotel industry is a major player in the global and U.S. economies. In 2022, the global hotel industry was worth more than $4.548 trillion and is projected to see a CAGR of 7% from 2021 to 2025. In the U.S. alone, the hotel and motel industry is worth $177.6 billion, and the tourism industry is worth $545.11 billion.

Lockdowns in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 significantly impacted this industry. The worldwide travel and tourism industry contributed $4.671 trillion to the global GDP in 2020, which is just over half the amount it contributed in 2019 ($9.17 trillion).

In the U.S., over seven million leisure and hospitality industry employees lost their jobs during the first six months of 2020, compared to the just over five million that found themselves unemployed throughout all of 2019. Hotel occupancy rates also dropped by 33.3% from 2019 to 2020.

Eventbrite. “ Millennials: Fueling the Experience Economy. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

Medium . “ The Importance of Imagery on Hotel Websites. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

Frederic Gonzalo. “ Photos Impact Bookings More Than Reviews. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

Statista. “ Occupancy Rate of the Hotel Industry Worldwide From 2008 to 2019, by Region. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

IBISWorld. “ Hotels & Motels in the U.S. – Number of Businesses 2005-2027. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

Statista. “ Number of Hotel Rooms in the United States From 2017 to 2020, by Chain Scale Segment. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

IBISWorld. “ Hotels & Motels in the U.S. – Market Size 2005-2027. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

Statista. “ Market Size of the Tourism Sector in the United States From 2011 to 2020, with a Forecast for 2021. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

Statista. “ Occupancy Rate of Hotel Industry in the United States From 2001 to 2020. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. “ Accommodation: NAICS 721. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. “ Economic News Release: Employment Situation Summary. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. “ Databases, Tables & Calculators by Subject: Gross Job Gains for the Leisure and Hospitality Sector in the U.S. (Rounded to the Nearest Thousands.) ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. “ Databases, Tables & Calculators by Subject: Gross Job Losses for the Leisure and Hospitality Sector in the U.S. (Rounded to the Nearest Thousands). ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. “ Leisure and Hospitality. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

IBISWorld. “ Global Hotels & Resorts – Market Size 2005-2027. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

Globe Newswire. “ Global Hotel and Other Travel Accommodation Market Report 2021: Market is Expected to Grow From $673.02 Billion in 2020 to $801.9 Billion in 2021 – Long-term Forecast to 2025 & 2030. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

Statista. “ Total Contribution of Travel and Tourism to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Worldwide From 2006 to 2020. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

Statista. “ Total Number of Hotels Worldwide From 2008 to 2018. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

Hospitality Net. “ What Are the 4 Segments of the Hospitality Industry. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

Hotel Tech Report. “ 100 Hotel Trends You Need To Watch in 2022 & Beyond. ” Accessed on February 16, 2022.

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Stary Oskol Substation – New – 500/110 kV, Russia

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Stary Oskol Substation – New – 500/110 kV is a 500/110kV substation located in Stary Oskol, Belgorod Oblast, Russia. The construction works on Stary Oskol Substation – New – 500/110 kV began in 2017. The project was commissioned in 2018.


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The Stary Oskol Substation – New – 500/110 kV project is a new substation being operated by Federal Grid Company of Unified Energy System.

The designed voltage level of the project is 500/110kV, while the operating voltage level is 500/110kV. The step-in voltage of the substation is 500kV and the step-out voltage is 110kV. The substation capacity is 250MVA.

Stary Oskol Substation – New – 500/110 kV has received approval from Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation to undertake the works on the project.

About Federal Grid Company of Unified Energy System

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Federal Grid Company of Unified Energy System (FGC UES), is a subsidiary of Rosseti, is an energy company which operates and manages unified national electricity transmission grid system. The company transmits electricity to distribution grid companies, large commercial end customers and retail electricity supply companies; and provides connection services. FGC UES also sells electricity produced by its group company, JSC Mobile GTPP and provides construction services for electric grid facilities. It carries out property lease, maintenance and repair of electric grids, communication services, and design and survey. FGC UES is headquartered in Moscow, Russia.


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