how does water travel up xylem

  • Phylogenetic Trees and Geologic Time
  • Prokaryotes: Bacteria & Archaea
  • Eukaryotes and their Origins
  • Land Plants
  • Animals: Invertebrates
  • Animals: Vertebrates
  • The Tree of Life over Geologic Time
  • Mass Extinctions and Climate Variability
  • Multicellularity, Development, and Reproduction
  • Animal Reproductive Strategies
  • Animal Reproductive Structures and Functions
  • Animal Development I: Fertilization & Cleavage
  • Animal Development II: Gastrulation & Organogenesis
  • Plant Reproduction
  • Plant Development I: Tissue differentiation and function
  • Plant Development II: Primary and Secondary Growth
  • Intro to Chemical Signaling and Communication by Microbes
  • Animal Hormones
  • Plant Hormones and Sensory Systems
  • Nervous Systems
  • Animal Sensory Systems
  • Motor proteins and muscles
  • Motor units and skeletal systems
  • Nutrient Needs and Adaptations
  • Nutrient Acquisition by Plants

Water Transport in Plants: Xylem

  • Sugar Transport in Plants: Phloem
  • Nutrient Acquisition by Animals
  • Animal Gas Exchange and Transport
  • Animal Circulatory Systems
  • The Mammalian Cardiac Cycle
  • Animal Ion and Water Regulation (and Nitrogen Excretion)
  • The Mammalian Kidney: How Nephrons Perform Osmoregulation
  • Plant and Animal Responses to the Environment

Learning Objectives

  • Explain water potential and predict movement of water in plants by applying the principles of water potential
  • Describe the effects of different environmental or soil conditions on the typical water potential gradient in plants
  • Identify and differentiate between the three pathways water and minerals can take from the root hair to the vascular tissue
  • Explain the three hypotheses explaining water movement in plant xylem, and recognize which hypothesis explains the heights of plants beyond a few meters
  • Define transpiration and identify the source of energy that drives transpiration

Water Potential and Water Transport from Roots to Shoots

The information below was adapted from OpenStax Biology 30.5

The structure of plant roots, stems, and leaves facilitates the transport of water, nutrients, and products of photosynthesis throughout the plant. The phloem is the tissue primarily responsible for movement of nutrients and photosynthetic produces, and xylem is the tissue primarily responsible for movement of water). Plants are able to transport water from their roots up to the tips of their tallest shoot through the combination of water potential, evapotranspiration, and stomatal regulation – all without using any cellular energy!

Water potential is a measure of the potential energy in water based on potential water movement between two systems. Water potential can be defined as the difference in potential energy between any given water sample and pure water (at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature). Water potential is denoted by the Greek letter Ψ ( psi ) and is expressed in units of pressure (pressure is a form of energy) called megapascals (MPa). The potential of pure water (Ψ pure H2O ) is defined as zero (even though pure water contains plenty of potential energy, this energy is ignored in this context).

Water potential can be positive or negative, and water potential is calculated from the combined effects of  solute concentration   (s) and  pressure (p) . The equation for this calculation is Ψ

An example of the effect of turgor pressure is the wilting of leaves and their restoration after the plant has been watered. Water is lost from the leaves via transpiration (approaching Ψ p  = 0 MPa at the wilting point) and restored by uptake via the roots.

how does water travel up xylem

This video provides an overview of water potential, including solute and pressure potential (stop after 5:05):

And this video describes how plants manipulate water potential to absorb water and how water and minerals move through the root tissues:

Impact of Soil and Environmental Conditions on the Plant Water Potential Gradient

As noted above, Ψ soil  must be > Ψ root  > Ψ stem  > Ψ leaf  > Ψ atmosphere in order for transpiration to occur (continuous movement of water through the plant from the soil to the air without equilibrating. This continuous movement of water relies on a water potential gradient , where water potential decreases at each point from soil to atmosphere as it passes through the plant tissues. However, this gradient can become disrupted if the soil becomes too dry, which can result in both decreased solute potential (due to the same amount of solutes dissolved in a smaller quantity of water) as well as decreased pressure potential in severe droughts (resulting from negative pressure or a “vacuum” in the soil due to loss of water volume). If water potential becomes sufficiently lower in the soil than in the plant’s roots, then water will move out of the plant root and into the soil.

Pathways of Water and Mineral Movement in the Roots

Once water has been absorbed by a root hair, it moves through the ground tissue and along its water potential gradient through one of three possible routes before entering the plant’s xylem:

  • the  symplast : “sym” means “same” or “shared,” so symplast is “shared cytoplasm”.  In this pathway, water and minerals move from the cytoplasm of one cell in to the next, via plasmodesmata that physically join different plant cells, until eventually reaching the xylem.
  • the  transmembrane  pathway: in this pathway, water moves through water channels present in the plant cell plasma membranes, from one cell to the next, until eventually reaching the xylem.
  • the  apoplast : “a” means “outside of,” so apoplast is “outside of the cell”. In this pathway, water and dissolved minerals never move through a cell’s plasma membrane but instead travel through the porous cell walls that surround plant cells.

Apoplast and symplast pathways

Water and minerals that move into a cell through the plasma membrane has been “filtered” as it passes through water or other channels within the plasma membrane; however water and minerals that move via the apoplast do not encounter a filtering step until they reach a layer of cells known as the endodermis which separate the vascular tissue (called the stele in the root) from the ground tissue in the outer portion of the root. The endodermis is present only in roots, and serves as a checkpoint for materials entering the root’s vascular system. A waxy substance called suberin is present on the walls of the endodermal cells. This waxy region, known as the Casparian strip , forces water and solutes to cross the plasma membranes of endodermal cells instead of slipping between the cells. This process ensures that only materials required by the root pass through the endodermis, while toxic substances and pathogens are generally excluded.

Water transport in roots

Movement of Water Up the Xylem Against Gravity

How is water transported up a plant against gravity, when there is no “pump” or input of cellular energy to move water through a plant’s vascular tissue? There are three hypotheses that explain the movement of water up a plant against gravity. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, and each contribute to movement of water in a plant, but only one can explain the height of tall trees:

  • Root pressure  pushes water up
  • Capillary action draws water up within the xylem
  • Cohesion-tension pulls water up the xylem

We’ll consider each of these in turn.

Root pressure relies on positive pressure that forms in the roots as water moves into the roots from the soil. Water moves into the roots from the soil by osmosis, due to the low solute potential in the roots (lower Ψs in roots than in soil). This intake o f water in the roots increases Ψp in the root xylem, “pushing” water up. In extreme circumstances, or when stomata are closed at night preventing water from evaporating from the leaves, root pressure results in guttation , or secretion of water droplets from stomata in the leaves. However, root pressure can only move water against gravity by a few meters, so it is not sufficient to move water up the height of a tall tree. 

Capillary action  (or capillarity) is the tendency of a liquid to move up against gravity when confined within a narrow tube (capillary). You can directly observe the effects of capillary action when water forms a meniscus when confined in a narrow tube. Capillarity occurs due to three properties of water:

  • Surface tension , which occurs because hydrogen bonding between water molecules is stronger at the air-water interface than among molecules within the water.
  • Adhesion , which is molecular attraction between “unlike” molecules. In the case of xylem, adhesion occurs between water molecules and the molecules of the xylem cell walls.
  • Cohesion , which is molecular attraction between “like” molecules. In water, cohesion occurs due to hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

On its own, capillarity can work well within a vertical stem for up to approximately 1 meter, so it is not strong enough to move water up a tall tree.

This video provides an overview of the important properties of water that facilitate this movement:

The cohesion-tension  hypothesis is the most widely-accepted model for movement of water in vascular plants. Cohesion-tension combines the process of capillary action with transpiration or the evaporation of water from the plant stomata. Transpiration is ultimately the main driver of water movement in xylem, combined with the effects of capillary action. The cohesion-tension model works like this:

  • Transpiration (evaporation) occurs because stomata in the leaves are open to allow gas exchange for photosynthesis. As transpiration occurs, evaporation of water deepens the meniscus of water in the leaf, creating negative pressure (also called tension or suction).
  • The tension created by transpiration “pulls” water in the plant xylem, drawing the water upward in much the same way that you draw water upward when you suck on a straw.
  • Cohesion (water molecules sticking to other water molecules) causes more water molecules to fill the gap in the xylem as the top-most water is pulled toward end of the meniscus within the stomata.

Transpiration results in a phenomenal amount of negative pressure within the xylem vessels and tracheids, which are structurally reinforced with lignin to cope with large changes in pressure. The taller the tree, the greater the tension forces (and thus negative pressure) needed to pull water up from roots to shoots.

how does water travel up xylem

Follow this link to watch this video on YouTube for an overview of the different processes that cause water to move throughout a plant (this video is linked because it cannot be directly embedded within the textbook; if needed, the video url is )

Transpiration Energy Source

The term “ transpiration ” has been used throughout this reading in the context of water movement in plants. Here we will define it as: evaporation of water from the plant stomata resulting in the continuous movement of water through a plant via the xylem, from soil to air, without equilibrating.

Transpiration is a passive process with respect to the plant, meaning that ATP is not required to move water up the plant’s shoots. The energy source that drives the process of transpiration is the extreme difference in water potential between the water in the soil and the water in the atmosphere. Factors that alter this extreme difference in water potential can also alter the rate of transpiration in the plant.

  • Entries RSS
  • Comments RSS
  • Sites@GeorgiaTech

Creative Commons License

Vannevar bush.

“Science has a simple faith, which transcends utility. It is the faith that it is the privilege of man to learn to understand, and that this is his mission.”

Study Mind logo

Book a free consultation now

100+ Video Tutorials, Flashcards and Weekly Seminars

  • Revision notes >
  • A-Level Biology >
  • CIE A-level Biology

The Pathway and Movement of Water into the Roots and Xylem (A-level Biology)

The pathway and movement of water into   the roots and xylem, water movement, in the root.

  • Water is a transport system . Water is essential in plants as it it used as a transport system for nutrients and minerals across a water potential gradient .
  • Water potential is higher within the soil than the root hair cell . Water is taken up by the roots of a plant and through the endodermis , before being moved into xylem tissue, which is in the centre of the root. The water potential inside the soil is higher than that of that root hair cells. This is because of the dissolved substances in the cell sap.
  • Root hair cells increase surface area . Root hair cells function to increase the surface area in order to be pumped across against the concentration gradient .

Water can reach the cortex of the xylem vessels via two pathways:

  • Symplast , where water moves between the cytoplasm of neighbouring cells.
  • Apoplast , where water can moves directly through the permeable cell walls and intercellular spaces of neighbouring cells.

The symplast pathway allows water to enter the cytoplasm via the plasma membrane, where it travels between cells through plasmodesmata .

Plasmodesmata are tiny channels which cross the cell walls of neighbouring plant cells in order to be able to connect their cytoplasm, creating a large multinucleate mass of plant cells.

The apoplast pathway doesn’t need to travel through the plasma membranes in order for the water to move through the spaces between the cellulose molecules. Because of this, it can carry dissolved mineral ions and salts.

Once the water reaches the endodermis of the root, a layer of suberin (known as the Casparian strip ) stops the water’s path. This is because it cannot be penetrated by water.

To be able to cross the endodermis, the moving water can now use the symplast pathway by going down the water potential gradient to reach a pit in the xylem vessel. This is where water enters the vessel.

A-level Biology -  The Pathway and Movement of Water into the Roots and Xylem

In the Xylem

Moving down the water potential gradient, water gets removed from the top of xylem vessel into mesophyll cells.

Root pressure, where the endodermis uses active transport to move minerals into the xylem, pushes the water upwards, into the xylem by osmosis.

Cohesion-Tension Theory

The cohesion-tension theory explains how water moves up the xylem.

  • Water evaporates from the mesophyll cells within the leaf . This is known as transpiration , which is the evaporation of water from a plant.
  • As water molecules are cohesive, tension is created . Water molecules stick together because the molecules can form hydrogen bonds with one another.
  • This cohesion and tension causes more water to be drawn up into the xylem . The water is pulled up through the xylem via osmosis so   that the vessel is filled with an uninterrupted column of water. This column will make its way up through the xylem until it evaporates from the mesophyll cell’s walls. The water then diffuses from air sacs in the leaf, through open stoma.

Cohesion is the attraction of same molecules. Hydrogen bonds are formed between water molecules.

Adhesion is the attraction of unlike molecules. Hydrogen bonds are formed between water and surfaces. An example of a surface used in adhesion it the pores in mesophyll cells.

Water moves into plants through the roots and into the xylem, which is responsible for transporting water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant.

Water moves into the roots of a plant through osmosis, which is the movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. In the case of plants, water moves from the soil into the roots due to a lower concentration of water inside the roots.

Transpiration is the process by which water is lost from the leaves of a plant through small pores called stomata. This water loss creates a negative pressure in the xylem that pulls water up from the roots and into the rest of the plant.

Root pressure is a natural force that results from the accumulation of water and minerals in the roots. This pressure helps to push water up into the xylem and into the rest of the plant.

The structure of the xylem plays a critical role in the movement of water into plants. The xylem is composed of long, narrow tubes that run from the roots to the leaves, and the continuous column of water in the xylem is maintained by the cohesive forces of the water molecules.

Capillarity is the process by which water is drawn up into small tubes, such as the xylem in plants. The combination of capillarity and transpiration creates a continuous column of water in the xylem, which provides a pathway for water to move from the roots to the leaves.

The pathway and movement of water into plants is a critical concept for A-Level Biology students to understand because it highlights the interconnectedness of different plant structures and functions. Additionally, this knowledge provides a foundation for further studies in botany, plant physiology, and related fields.

Still got a question? Leave a comment

Leave a comment, cancel reply.

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

CIE 1 Cell structure

Roles of atp (a-level biology), atp as an energy source (a-level biology), the synthesis and hydrolysis of atp (a-level biology), the structure of atp (a-level biology), magnification and resolution (a-level biology), calculating cell size (a-level biology), studying cells: confocal microscopes (a-level biology), studying cells: electron microscopes (a-level biology), studying cells: light microscopes (a-level biology), life cycle and replication of viruses (a-level biology), cie 10 infectious disease, bacteria, antibiotics, and other medicines (a-level biology), pathogens and infectious diseases (a-level biology), cie 11 immunity, types of immunity and vaccinations (a-level biology), structure and function of antibodies (a-level biology), the adaptive immune response (a-level biology), introduction to the immune system (a-level biology), primary defences against pathogens (a-level biology), cie 12 energy and respiration, anaerobic respiration in mammals, plants and fungi (a-level biology), anaerobic respiration (a-level biology), oxidative phosphorylation and chemiosmosis (a-level biology), oxidative phosphorylation and the electron transport chain (a-level biology), the krebs cycle (a-level biology), the link reaction (a-level biology), the stages and products of glycolysis (a-level biology), glycolysis (a-level biology), the structure of mitochondria (a-level biology), the need for cellular respiration (a-level biology), cie 13 photosynthesis, limiting factors of photosynthesis (a-level biology), cyclic and non-cyclic phosphorylation (a-level biology), the 2 stages of photosynthesis (a-level biology), photosystems and photosynthetic pigments (a-level biology), site of photosynthesis, overview of photosynthesis (a-level biology), cie 14 homeostasis, ectotherms and endotherms (a-level biology), thermoregulation (a-level biology), plant responses to changes in the environment (a-level biology), cie 15 control and co-ordination, the nervous system (a-level biology), sources of atp during contraction (a-level biology), the ultrastructure of the sarcomere during contraction (a-level biology), the role of troponin and tropomyosin (a-level biology), the structure of myofibrils (a-level biology), slow and fast twitch muscles (a-level biology), the structure of mammalian muscles (a-level biology), how muscles allow movement (a-level biology), the neuromuscular junction (a-level biology), features of synapses (a-level biology), cie 16 inherited change, calculating genetic diversity (a-level biology), how meiosis produces variation (a-level biology), cell division by meiosis (a-level biology), importance of meiosis (a-level biology), cie 17 selection and evolution, types of selection (a-level biology), mechanism of natural selection (a-level biology), types of variation (a-level biology), cie 18 biodiversity, classification and conservation, biodiversity and gene technology (a-level biology), factors affecting biodiversity (a-level biology), biodiversity calculations (a-level biology), introducing biodiversity (a-level biology), the three domain system (a-level biology), phylogeny and classification (a-level biology), classifying organisms (a-level biology), cie 19 genetic technology, cie 2 biological molecules, properties of water (a-level biology), structure of water (a-level biology), test for lipids and proteins (a-level biology), tests for carbohydrates (a-level biology), protein structures: globular and fibrous proteins (a-level biology), protein structures: tertiary and quaternary structures (a-level biology), protein structures: primary and secondary structures (a-level biology), protein formation (a-level biology), proteins and amino acids: an introduction (a-level biology), phospholipid bilayer (a-level biology), cie 3 enzymes, enzymes: inhibitors (a-level biology), enzymes: rates of reaction (a-level biology), enzymes: intracellular and extracellular forms (a-level biology), enzymes: mechanism of action (a-level biology), enzymes: key concepts (a-level biology), enzymes: introduction (a-level biology), cie 4 cell membranes and transport, transport across membranes: active transport (a-level biology), investigating transport across membranes (a-level biology), transport across membranes: osmosis (a-level biology), transport across membranes: diffusion (a-level biology), signalling across cell membranes (a-level biology), function of cell membrane (a-level biology), factors affecting cell membrane structure (a-level biology), structure of cell membranes (a-level biology), cie 5 the mitotic cell cycle, chromosome mutations (a-level biology), cell division: checkpoints and mutations (a-level biology), cell division: phases of mitosis (a-level biology), cell division: the cell cycle (a-level biology), cell division: chromosomes (a-level biology), cie 6 nucleic acids and protein synthesis, transfer rna (a-level biology), transcription (a-level biology), messenger rna (a-level biology), introducing the genetic code (a-level biology), genes and protein synthesis (a-level biology), synthesising proteins from dna (a-level biology), structure of rna (a-level biology), dna replication (a-level biology), dna structure and the double helix (a-level biology), polynucleotides (a-level biology), cie 7 transport in plants, translocation and evidence of the mass flow hypothesis (a-level biology), the phloem (a-level biology), importance of and evidence for transpiration (a-level biology), introduction to transpiration (a-level biology), the xylem (a-level biology), cie 8 transport in mammals, controlling heart rate (a-level biology), structure of the heart (a-level biology), transport of carbon dioxide (a-level biology), transport of oxygen (a-level biology), exchange in capillaries (a-level biology), structure and function of blood vessels (a-level biology), cie 9 gas exchange and smoking, lung disease (a-level biology), pulmonary ventilation rate (a-level biology), ventilation (a-level biology), structure of the lungs (a-level biology), general features of exchange surfaces (a-level biology), understanding surface area to volume ratio (a-level biology), the need for exchange surfaces (a-level biology), edexcel a 1: lifestyle, health and risk, phospholipids – introduction (a-level biology), edexcel a 2: genes and health, features of the genetic code (a-level biology), gas exchange in plants (a-level biology), gas exchange in insects (a-level biology), edexcel a 3: voice of the genome, edexcel a 4: biodiversity and natural resources, edexcel a 5: on the wild side, reducing biomass loss (a-level biology), sources of biomass loss (a-level biology), transfer of biomass (a-level biology), measuring biomass (a-level biology), net primary production (a-level biology), gross primary production (a-level biology), trophic levels (a-level biology), edexcel a 6: immunity, infection & forensics, microbial techniques (a-level biology), the innate immune response (a-level biology), edexcel a 7: run for your life, edexcel a 8: grey matter, inhibitory synapses (a-level biology), synaptic transmission (a-level biology), the structure of the synapse (a-level biology), factors affecting the speed of transmission (a-level biology), myelination (a-level biology), the refractory period (a-level biology), all or nothing principle (a-level biology), edexcel b 1: biological molecules, inorganic ions (a-level biology), edexcel b 10: ecosystems, nitrogen cycle: nitrification and denitrification (a-level biology), the phosphorus cycle (a-level biology), nitrogen cycle: fixation and ammonification (a-level biology), introduction to nutrient cycles (a-level biology), edexcel b 2: cells, viruses, reproduction, edexcel b 3: classification & biodiversity, edexcel b 4: exchange and transport, edexcel b 5: energy for biological processes, edexcel b 6: microbiology and pathogens, edexcel b 7: modern genetics, edexcel b 8: origins of genetic variation, edexcel b 9: control systems, ocr 2.1.1 cell structure, structure of prokaryotic cells (a-level biology), eukaryotic cells: comparing plant and animal cells (a-level biology), eukaryotic cells: plant cell organelles (a-level biology), eukaryotic cells: the endoplasmic reticulum (a-level biology), eukaryotic cells: the golgi apparatus and lysosomes (a-level biology), ocr 2.1.2 biological molecules, introduction to eukaryotic cells and organelles (a-level biology), ocr 2.1.3 nucleotides and nucleic acids, ocr 2.1.4 enzymes, ocr 2.1.5 biological membranes, ocr 2.1.6 cell division, diversity & organisation, ocr 3.1.1 exchange surfaces, ocr 3.1.2 transport in animals, ocr 3.1.3 transport in plants, examples of xerophytes (a-level biology), introduction to xerophytes (a-level biology), ocr 4.1.1 communicable diseases, structure of viruses (a-level biology), ocr 4.2.1 biodiversity, ocr 4.2.2 classification and evolution, ocr 5.1.1 communication and homeostasis, the resting potential (a-level biology), ocr 5.1.2 excretion, ocr 5.1.3 neuronal communication, hyperpolarisation and transmission of the action potential (a-level biology), depolarisation and repolarisation in the action potential (a-level biology), ocr 5.1.4 hormonal communication, ocr 5.1.5 plant and animal responses, ocr 5.2.1 photosynthesis, ocr 5.2.2 respiration, ocr 6.1.1 cellular control, ocr 6.1.2 patterns of inheritance, ocr 6.1.3 manipulating genomes, ocr 6.2.1 cloning and biotechnology, ocr 6.3.1 ecosystems, ocr 6.3.2 populations and sustainability, related links.

  • A-Level Biology 1-1 Tutors
  • A-Level Biology Online Course

Boost your A-Level Biology Performance

Get an A* in A-Level Biology with our Trusted 1-1 Tutors. Enquire now.

100+ Video Tutorials, Flashcards and Weekly Seminars. 100% Money Back Guarantee

how does water travel up xylem

Let's get acquainted ? What is your name?

Nice to meet you, {{name}} what is your preferred e-mail address, nice to meet you, {{name}} what is your preferred phone number, what is your preferred phone number, just to check, what are you interested in, when should we call you.

It would be great to have a 15m chat to discuss a personalised plan and answer any questions

What time works best for you? (UK Time)

Pick a time-slot that works best for you ?

How many hours of 1-1 tutoring are you looking for?

My whatsapp number is..., for our safeguarding policy, please confirm....

Please provide the mobile number of a guardian/parent

Which online course are you interested in?

What is your query, you can apply for a bursary by clicking this link, sure, what is your query, thank you for your response. we will aim to get back to you within 12-24 hours., lock in a 2 hour 1-1 tutoring lesson now.

If you're ready and keen to get started click the button below to book your first 2 hour 1-1 tutoring lesson with us. Connect with a tutor from a university of your choice in minutes. (Use FAST5 to get 5% Off!)


  1. Xylem and phloem water and minerals transportation system outline

    how does water travel up xylem

  2. Describe the Cohesion-tension Theory of Water Transport in the Xylem

    how does water travel up xylem

  3. How water moves from soil to air

    how does water travel up xylem

  4. Water Transport in the Xylem (3.6.1)

    how does water travel up xylem

  5. Xylem And Phloem Diagrams

    how does water travel up xylem

  6. Transport of water in the xylem. AQA A level biology

    how does water travel up xylem


  1. This Crystal Has Water Trapped Inside! How Do Enhydro Crystals Form? #gems #crystals #water

  2. 7-4 Transport of water & minerals in the leaf (Cambridge AS A Level Biology, 9700)

  3. Happy xylemian #faculty #biology #neet #mbbs #kottayam #trivandrian #xylem_learning

  4. കേരള പിറവി ആശംസകൾ #youtubeshorts #xylem_learning #enjoyment

  5. Long distance transport of water in plants



  1. What Is the Function of Xylem Cells?

    The main function of xylem cells is to carry water and soluble minerals from the root to the leaves of a plant. However, a secondary function of xylem tissue is to provide support for the plant.

  2. What Are the Functions and Adaptations of the Xylem Vessels?

    Xylem vessels are made up of hollow cells designed to carry water and minerals from the roots of a plant to the trunk, with altered cell walls to allow for the passage of one vessel to another. They also provide structural support to vascul...

  3. How Does Water Move Through Plants?

    The xylem helps in the movement of water from the root to the leaves. Two types of cells in the xylem, tracheids and vessels, form tubes that allow water to move up the plant. Tracheids are found in all vascular plants, but vessels are only...

  4. Water Transport in Plants: Xylem

    The tension created by transpiration “pulls” water in the plant xylem, drawing the water upward in much the same way that you draw water upward when you suck on

  5. Water Transport and Transpiration (A Level)

    Water can get into xylem vessels by two routes - the symplast pathway and the apoplast pathway. If water travels via the symplast pathway then it travels from

  6. Water Uptake and Transport in Vascular Plants

    The resultant chemical potential gradient drives water influx across the root and into the xylem. No root pressure exists in rapidly transpiring plants, but it

  7. How does water move through xylem?

    The movement of water in the xylem is explained by the cohesion-tension theory. According to this theory, the water moves up in the xylem via the force of

  8. Movement of Water and Minerals in the Xylem

    The cohesion-tension theory explains how water moves up through the xylem. Inside the leaf at the cellular level, water on the surface of

  9. Lesson Explainer: Transport in the Xylem

    Due to the transport of water up the xylem, the color of the water will

  10. How does water enter and move up the plant?

    It moves up through a process known as transpiration. This is when water leaves the through the stomata, creating a negative hydrostatic pressure which

  11. Xylem & transpiration (video)

    And so now to the big question, how does the water climb up these xylem vessels? Well, like I said before it's due to evaporation. When the water eventually

  12. How does water travel up the stem of a plant from the roots ...

    ... up the stem through vessels called xylem and into the leaves. You are right that this goes against gravity, so how can the water move upwards? Well, plants

  13. The Pathway and Movement of Water into the Roots and Xylem

    The water is pulled up through the xylem via osmosis so that the vessel is filled with an uninterrupted column of water. This column will make its way up


    ... upwards against force of gravity with the help of xylem vessels. In the movement of water, upwards plants have two types of strategies.